What in your opinion, are three of some of the greatest works of modern architecture and why?


John Peter:

What in your opinion, are three of some of the greatest works of modern architecture and why?

Paul Rudolph:

I feel the Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoie [Poissy, France, 1929] demonstrated the sense of continuity of space, the unfolding space, in an admirable way. It also stated eloquently Le Corbusier’s feeling about man’s relationship to nature, which has proved to be prophetic.

I think that Mies van der Rohe’s 860 apartment houses in Chicago [ 860-880 Lake Shore Drive, 1948-1951] elevated the steel frame for the first time to the heights of great art, and because the steel cage is very American, such a building could be built only in the United States. That it has true significance. It must be noted, incidentally, that the steel frame is not what is actually shown, but only symbols of the structure are shown.

I think that Taliesin West [Scottsdale, AZ, 1937], of Wright’s, is a truly significant building because of the sequence of space which he has managed to achieve as well as the relationship to the site and the whole use of materials, the juxtaposition of the compression of the stone work and the flying quality of the trusses and beams. The light coming through the canvas. The whole manipulation of the natural light.

Interview with John Peter, 1959

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What is an architect?


"An architect is a man concerned with building meaningfully."

Interview with John Peter, 1959

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Paul Rudolph and Ben Thompson


David Fixler compares and contrasts two modernists with Boston connections in this article from ArchitectureBoston.

"Ben & Paul: Two architects, two views of Modernism: Ben Thompson and Paul Rudolph"


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N.Y. County Debates Future of Paul Rudolph's Government Center


Latest on the Orange County Courthouse by Paul Rudolph from Preservation Magazine and the National Trust for Historic Preservation.


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Will it be demolition or makeover for county government center?


This article presents a balanced assessment regarding the future of the Orange County Courthouse by designed by Paul Rudolph.


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Extraordinary Architecture Design – Classic Orange County Government Center Building in New York by Paul Rudolph


Check out this brief from zeospot.com on this Paul Rudolph classic.


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On the Landmark Award to Paul Rudolph's Former Residence at Beekman Place, New York

  “The juxtaposition of modern and traditional forms creates a dialogue between the old and the new, and makes this building one of the most provocative landmarks in New York City. The Rudolph penthouse also is the City’s only landmark whose significance stems from a 1970s intervention.” Robert B. Tierney, Chairman of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, November 16, 2010.


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Manhattan Residence of Paul Rudolph to be Designated a New York Landmark


Matt Chaban writing for the New York Observer reports and comments on the award to the Beekman Place residence of Paul Rudolph in these two articles.



See Press Release from the Landmarks Commission below.


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Bond / Lippo Centre by Paul Rudolph Makes List of World's Strangest Skyscrapers


Check out this list of very unusual skyscrapers from the Web Urbanist. Although it is not surprising that Paul Rudolph would appear on such a list, his Lippo Centre in Hong Kong is one of the more traditional buildings of the lot.


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Paul Goldberger on Paul Rudolph and the Lower Manhattan Expressway Project


See this blog by the well-known architectural critic on his reaction to the Lower Manhattan Expressway exhibit on display at the Cooper Union until November 20.



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ArchDaily Reviews the Bass Residence by Paul Rudolph


Check out this article on the magnificent Bass Residence in Fort Worth, Texas by Paul Rudolph.


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Lower Manhattan Expressway Exhibit Attracting Much Attention


The Lower Manhattan Expressway exhibit currently running at the Cooper Union and co-sponsored by the Drawing Center is attracting a lot of notice. And as is the case with most of the work of Paul Rudolph there is scant ground of agreement between likes and dislikes. Check out some of the reactions below.







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Obituary of Jack West, Former Associate of Paul Rudolph


See the obituary of Jack West, prominent Sarasota School architect and former associate of Paul Rudolph.



West wrote an autobiography in 1988 in which he elaborates on his association with Rudolph from 1949-1951. This relatively obscure title is nonetheless interesting reading on the early years of Rudolph and the Sarasota School of Architecture.


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Gene Leedy on Paul Rudolph, Sarasota School of Architecture


Check out this brief interview with Gene Leedy in the October issue of "Florida Trend."


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From "Paul Rudolph: Lower Manhattan Expressway"

"One characteristic of the twentieth century is that nothing is ever completed, nothing is ever fixed. We don't think of things being complete within themselves...So the whole idea of the uncompleted building which is going to be expanded in unknown ways is an obsession."
Kilian, Steven, et al. "Paul Rudolph: Lower Manhattan Expressway" New York: The Drawing center, 2010. p. 18.

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Lower Manhattan Expressway Project by Paul Rudolph Subject of Exhibition


The Drawing Center will organize an exhibition in
collaboration with The Irwin S. Chanin School of
Architecture of The Cooper Union on late-Modernist
American architect Paul Rudolph’s Lower Manhattan
Expressway (LME) project. The LME was conceived in
the early 1960s as a major urban design project to create a
transportation hub, housing, and public spaces in New York City. Though never constructed, this mega-scale project would have transformed the city. In the Houghton Gallery at
The Cooper Union, the exhibition will present
approximately 30 full-scale reproductions of drawings,
prints, and photographs from 1967-1972 from the Paul
Rudolph Archive at the Library of Congress, which will
be on public view for the first time and represent the only
record of this major plan. Additionally the exhibition will
feature a partial reconstruction of Rudolph’s model of the
LME project created by current students at The Cooper
Union School of Architecture.

Paul Rudolph: Lower Manhattan
Houghton Gallery, The Cooper Union
October 1–November 6, 2010
Reception: Thursday, September 30, 2010 at
Cooper Union

For more information:


The Drawing Center
35 Wooster Street, New York, NY, 10013
tel: 212-219-2166


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Another Building by Paul Rudolph Threatened with Demolition.


The Orange County Government Center in Goshen, NY, 1963 designed by Paul Rudolph is threatened with demolition. The county administrator has for years been complaining about the building. See recent story in the local newspaper below.




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New Book on the Lower Manhattan Expressway by Paul Rudolph


Along with the ongoing exhibition at the Drawing Center in New York City on Paul Rudolph's Lower Manhattan Expressway project is an exhibition catalog. The publication includes 30 color plates of the project. See below for ordering information.


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Reflecting on the Art and Architecture Building, Yale University.

"I've never worked on a building that affected me as much as that one does. I'd like to think that, in spite of everything, it says something about the nature of architecture."
Crosbie, Michael J. "Paul Rudolph on Yale's A & A: His First Interview on His Most Famous Work." Architecture: The AIA Journal 77 (November 1988): p. 105.

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Government Service Center the Location of Droid X Commercial


My last blog entry was about someone wanting to demolish the Government Service Center in Boston by Paul Rudolph. Motorola/Verizon Wireless obviously feel differently as they have used the building and its design to highlight their latest technology, the Droid X.

Watch the ad from YouTube.


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Reaction to Architecture

"Everyone in his own way is affected by his environment. The chords that are struck in people are not necessarily the ones which the architect anticipates. It seems to me the better the building, the more variety of chords that are struck."
Soo, Lydia, and Robert Ousterhout. "On the Destruction of Paul Rudolph's Christian Science Building: The Vicissitudes of Functionalism." Inland Architect 31 (March/April 1987): 69.

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Boston Globe Article States Government Service Center by Paul Rudolph Should be "plowed under"


The battle over the preservation of modernist buildings in Boston continues in the Boston Globe on July 30, 2010. The writer of this article supports the landmarking of the Christian Science Center while advocating the demolition of most other concrete modernist buildings. See article below:


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Pair of Paul Rudolph Chairs for Sale


For those with 25K to spare, check out this sale listing for a pair of classic chairs by Paul Rudolph.


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National Trust for Historic Preservation Highlights Boston Modernism, Paul Rudolph


The National Trust for Historic for Historic Preservation has published a new booklet highlighting modern architecture in Boston. It prominently cites the commissions of Paul Rudolph. The title "Boston Modern: The Spirit of Reinvention" is available below.




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A Review of the Cerrito House, Watch Hill, RI in 1957.


Thank you to Charles Cerrito for forwarding this interesting article from 1957 on the Cerrito House in Watch Hill, RI by Paul Rudolph. Many interesting original details and facts about the house are noted in the article.


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On teaching architecture

"There are certain things that are teachable, and there are many things that are not teachable. For instance, you could probably not really teach design. You can clarify what other people thought about design and what it implies, but you can’t teach people to be talented. It’s an innate thing. People are born architects or they’re not born architects. I’ve seen very intelligent people who will never be architects, no matter how much they try..."
Kaplan, Michael. "Interview with Paul Rudolph." University of Tennessee Journal of Architecture 16 (1995): p. 3.

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Paul Rudolph's Umbrella House Regains its Umbrella


The current owners of this landmark Paul Rudolph building have replaced the "umbrella" which was lost to Hurricane Alma in the 1960s. See news note below.


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Is the sketch superior to the computer-generated image?


"...Paul Rudolph was a brilliant architect and draughtsman who saw architecture as "a personal effort". His students at Yale were "encouraged" to help fill in elaborate texture and shadow for the master, sometimes working through the night for presentations to clients the next day. In response, they included their names in the drawing of bushes and trees, leaf and grass. Tedious perhaps but the finished drawings stand as works of art in themselves."

Alan Dunlop in Building Design, 05-21-2010.




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Foster Biography Includes Chapter on Paul Rudolph


A new biography on Norman Foster has recently been published in England. One of the chapters discusses the influence Paul Rudolph had on his work. "Norman Foster: A Life in Architecture" by Deyan Sudjic is published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson and is about $35. Look for it in the US in September, 2010 from Overlook Press.

See English review below.


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On the Deane Residence, Great Neck, NY


"a series of unfolding modules"

"The steps broaden as you go down, like widening ripples on the water's surface."

The jutting forms of the bedrooms, the library and the kitchen meet to create a central space that resembles a village square. That is the living room."

"The form of the house on the slope has the look of a man-made hill."

"In many ways, this is a tree house."

Israel, Frank. "Architecture: Paul Rudolph." Architectural Digest 35 (June 1978): p. 90, 94, 97, 99.

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Open House Scheduled at the Paul Rudolph Foundation


The townhouse at Modulightor at 246 East 58th Street was designed and built by Paul Rudolph from 1989 – 1994. Originally a commercial, wooden structure, 246 East 58th was dismantled and replaced with a steel structure. For the interior construction, Rudolph became his own contractor. It is now the home of The Paul Rudolph Foundation.

The foundation is having an Open House on Friday, June 4, 2010 from 6-8 PM. See below for more details.


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Glazer Residence, Los Angeles, CA, 1979


I believe that this is a somewhat dated real estate listing nonetheless it includes photographs of this rarely cited project by Paul Rudolph.


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What is most satisfying

“On the other hand, you asked me what is most satisfying, for me personally, of my work. I have to confess, I go back to some of the earliest things that I worked on, partially because there are many differences between a guest cottage and what you call a mega-structure. You’re more likely to be in control of your guest cottage than you are the mega-structure for very many reasons. Finally, if you haven’t slipped into too many conceits, then the smaller project is more likely to be more pure in terms of your intentions. One of the problems which your generation will have is that things get to be bigger and bigger.”
Kaplan, Michael. "Interview with Paul Rudolph." University of Tennessee Journal of Architecture 16 (1995): 7-8.

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Yanofsky Residence by Paul Rudolph on Historic Newton, MA House Tour


Paul Rudolph's Yanofsky Residence, 1957 in Newton MA will be on the Historic Newton House Tour Sunday, May 23, 2010. This is a great opportunity to see this little known project by the architect.

See the society's web site for ticketing information.



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Head of Preservation League of New York State Argues for Saving the Chorley School


Check out this article by Jay DiLorenzo, President of the Preservation League of New York State about saving the Chorley Elementary School in Middletown, NY designed by Paul Rudolph.




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Government Service Center, Boston, MA


"I wanted to hollow out a concavity at the bottom of Beacon Hill, a spiraling space like a conch in negative relation to the convex dome of the State Capitol on top of the hill. I wanted it to wrap around a tower which turned and was not only visible in its upward thrust but penetrating visibly below the ground."
Black, Carl John. "A Vision of Human Space: Paul Rudolph: Boston State Service Center." Architectural Record 154 (July 1973): p. 106.



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Larchmont, NY House by Paul Rudolph For Sale


Check out this article in the New York Post concerning the real estate listing of Paul Rudolph's Larchmont, NY house.

"...designed by architect Paul Rudolph in 1954 and gut-renovated by him about 25 years later."


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Status of the Chorley School


Check out this article from the local newspaper on the status of the Chorley Elementary School designed by Paul Rudolph.




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Keeping a Clear Head

"I realize that infatuation is the most dangerous thing in the world. That sometimes you fixate on something and you can’t get it out of your system until you realize how bad it really is. It’s true with me anyway. I think it’s true with most architects, as a matter of fact. And, that your judgment sometimes leaves you. One has to keep a really clear head if one is going to be an architect. You can only be carried away by that which really works. Not only physically, technically, and functionally and so forth, but as a work of art. That is really difficult; you have to keep a clear head. It’s one’s conceits which get you into trouble. So, that’s the reason you have to start over every morning of the world. Architecture is really demanding. You can’t please yourself too easily. I happen to be very facile, you know. I can draw. I can put down what I’m thinking very quickly. I can also tear it up very quickly. It took me a long time to learn how to do that."
Kaplan, Michael. "Interview with Paul Rudolph." University of Tennessee Journal of Architecture 16 (1995): 7.

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Reading Rudolph


Check out this recent article by Ian Baldwin on Paul Rudolph in the online journal "Places: Design Observer."



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On the Burroughs Wellcome Building

“This complex climbs up and down a beautiful ridge in the green hills of North Carolina and is architecturally an extension of its site. An “A frame” allows the greatest volume to be housed on the lower floors and yet connected to the smaller mechanical system at the apex of the building. The diagonal movement of interior space opens up magnificent opportunities. Anticipation of growth and change is implicit in the concept.”
Paul Rudolph in Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl. The Architecture of Paul Rudolph. New York: Praeger, 1970. p. 233.

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New Videos Highlight the work of Paul Rudolph


Two new video programs highlight the work of Paul Rudolph. Both depict the unsuccessful efforts to save buildings from demolition. The first one is a slide presentation produced by the Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation and Stephen Lasar Architects entitled "Modern Masterpiece Demolished in Westport" detailing the demise of the Micheels Residence.


The other is "Site Specific: The Legacy of Regional Modernism" a video on the Sarasota School of Architecture and the cause of the Riverview High School in Sarasota, FL. This is a film by Matt Kohn, produced by Eve Dilworth and Metroplis Magazine.



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Paul Rudolph and Koalas


Interesting take on the Bond - Lippo Centre Towers by Paul Rudolph in Hong Kong.

"This pair of twin office buildings was designed to relieve the severity of skyscraper walls by using clusters of obtruding windows. The structures are said to look like koalas climbing a tree and therefore know as ‘the Koala Tree’ among the locals."


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"Cars, Culture and the City" exhibition to include the Work of Paul Rudolph


"Even though New York, like many major cities, has a low per capita ownership of automobiles, it has surprisingly played an essential role in creating today's car culture, and the car has helped, in turn, to shape modern New York. 'Cars, Culture, and the City' is the first exhibition to explore New York City’s century-long relationship with the car...The exhibition will feature visionary drawings[Lower Manhattan Expressway by Paul Rudolph] and models; historic photographs, films, and advertisements; and a wealth of car memorabilia to tell this fascinating, yet untold, story."

At the Museum of the City of New York, March 25-August 8, 2010.




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"Modernism At Risk" An Exhibition at The Center For Architecture, NY


The threatened Chorley School and the demolished Riverview High School by Paul Rudolph are centerpieces of "Modernism At Risk," an exhibition at The Center For Architecture in New York City. The exhibition runs through May 1, 2010.


Along with the exhibit will be a public presentation on the specific peril to the Chorley School. "At Risk! The John W.Chorley Elementary School, Middletown, NY" will take place at The Center on March 11, 2010, 6:00-8:00pm.


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The Cart Before the Horse

“Everybody, in my view, puts the cart before the horse. It is identifying the problem first which is the job of the architect, and then how well he solves those problems. People talk infernally about style, which I regard as total nonsense, to be quiet frank about it. Society, in general, establishes what the problem is, not the architect. Then it’s up to the architect to solve that. The great problem in the United States is that we still haven’t learned how to build cities, or make peace with urbanism on any level. That’s a tragedy because there is something very deep within people that want to make comprehensible, understandable environments. We don’t do that, so this talk about style is pure nonsense in my view. One has to understand and think about what needs to be done. And that is very much, then, up to the architect to solve problems. There is a group of architects and architectural theorists who dwell on issues which have nothing to do with anything, and I think that’s a tragedy since there are many issues and problems which need architectural attention and are totally ignored. It’s putting the cart before the horse. In that sense, architects are very much servants of society, not the other way around.”
Kaplan, Michael. "Interview with Paul Rudolph." University of Tennessee Journal of Architecture 16 (1995): p. 1.

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On SMTI / UMass Dartmouth

“The central organization of this campus is purposely a moving, or dynamic, one. That’s the very nature of what is needed, as I see it. When one gets beyond the spiraling mall, with its defining buildings, walks, terraces, plantings, etc., then other architects will take over, and indeed they already have. In that sense, I’ve thought of it as similar to Thomas Jefferson’s University of Virginia, wherein he made a fixed, well-defined, marvelous central core for the campus. But, beyond the core, other architects took over, building very inferior structures. The idea, the central core, must be strong enough as a center of the campus, and other architects will add on to that. But the cohesiveness of the center remains intact.”
Cook, John Wesley. Conversations with Architects : Philip Johnson, Kevin Roche, Paul Rudolph, Bertrand Goldberg, Morris Lapidus, Louis Kahn, Charles Moore, Robert Venturi & Denise Scott Brown. New York: Praeger, 1973. p. 91.

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On Sarasota High School

“The second Sarasota High School was a move from clear form, from clear structure, from lineal structural elements defining space, to the organization of planes in space. It depends much more on the space and the handling of light, which really meant planes rather than linear elements, which in turn commenced my investigations into scale… I’m affected by everything I see. I make no bones about it. I haven’t invented anything in my life. For instance, the entrance to the Sarasota High School can be traced directly to Corbusier’s High Court Building in Chandigarh.”
Cook, John Wesley. Conversations with Architects : Philip Johnson, Kevin Roche, Paul Rudolph, Bertrand Goldberg, Morris Lapidus, Louis Kahn, Charles Moore, Robert Venturi & Denise Scott Brown. New York: Praeger, 1973. p. 95.

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On his early career

“When I first started, I made guest houses because no one would trust me with the main house.”
Cook, John Wesley. Conversations with Architects : Philip Johnson, Kevin Roche, Paul Rudolph, Bertrand Goldberg, Morris Lapidus, Louis Kahn, Charles Moore, Robert Venturi & Denise Scott Brown. New York: Praeger, 1973. p. 94.

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On Tracey Towers, Bronx, NY

“In Tracey Towers, the exterior walls are not curved for structural reasons at all, but because the site plan and traffic movement dictated an easing of the corners. They are also curved in order to lead the eye around the towers, thereby emphasizing their three-dimensionality. They are also curved because they give a heightened sense of security to the occupants of a very high building, and one looks out and sees these walls, which seem like huge columns, closely rising from the ground. However, they are not columns, but walls, but they are read as columns, which is as intended for psychological reasons.
The geometry of the car is curvilinear and is, in this case, related to the rectilinear organization of the building itself. It is the result of two dissimilar elements coming together.”
Cook, John Wesley. Conversations with Architects : Philip Johnson, Kevin Roche, Paul Rudolph, Bertrand Goldberg, Morris Lapidus, Louis Kahn, Charles Moore, Robert Venturi & Denise Scott Brown. New York: Praeger, 1973. p. 120.

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Chorley Elementary Makes Preservation List


The Preservation League of New York State has placed the John W. Chorley Elementary School in Middletown, NY on its 2010 "Seven To Save" list. The school designed by Paul Rudolph in the 1960s is threatened with demolition. See links below.


The Paul Rudolph Foundation is spearheading efforts to save the school.


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On the Hook Guest House, Siesta Key, Sarasota, FL

“The first use, as far as I know, of bent plywood to span architectural space. The engineering involved was accomplished by trial and error, utilizing a few small boys jumping on various thicknesses of bent plywood in my backyard. The structure could be kept light by utilizing temporary cross tension members to get it through the hurricane season.”
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl. The Architecture of Paul Rudolph. New York: Praeger, 1970. p. 36.

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In Defense of Boston's Modernist Icons


Check out this "Boston Globe Magazine" article about the city's high-profile modernist buildings which are constantly threatened with demolition. Preservationists and critics deftly defend the structures. Oddly, little mention is made in the article about the architects that designed them. Paul Rudolph's Blue Cross Building and the State Service Center are highlighted.


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After You Left, They Took It Apart: Photographs by Chris Mottalini at Auburn University


"Contemporary photographer Chris Mottalini has produced a series of haunting images that record several abandoned houses designed by architect Paul Rudolph, structures he discovered in various states of neglect. Exploring these former paradigms of modern design, decaying and slated for destruction, Mottalini found poignancy and no small measure of irony in the startling contrast of high Modernism laid to ruin. Photographed in some cases immediately prior to the homes’ demolition, these images are the last “portraits” of Rudolph’s striking creations."

The exhibit will be at the Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art, Chi Omega–Hargis Gallery, Auburn University, February 6-April 17, 2010

Rudolph was a graduate of Auburn University, formerly Alabama Polytechnic Institute. He was awarded the commission to design the Jule Collins Smith Museum for his alma mater in 1996. He died well before the project got underway. Gresham, Smith & Partners designed the museum which opened to the public in 2003.


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Sarasota School of Architecture

“Paul was the catalyst. Where else could a young guy like me have lunch with people like Philip Johnson, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, or Talbot Hamlin who came to town to see Paul?”
Tim Seibert as quoted in: Berens, Carol. “What Modern Meant.” Echoes Magazine 9 (August 2000): 58.

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Heroic Project: Boston Concrete, 1957-1976


Check out this website which includes a number of projects by Paul Rudolph.

"“Heroic” presents the concrete structures that highlighted the era from the founding of the Boston Redevelopment Authority in 1957 to the re-opening of Quincy Market in 1976. These events bracket a remarkable period in which concrete was used as a building material in the transformation of Boston—creating what was eventually referred to as the “New Boston.” Concrete provided an important set of architectural opportunities and challenges for the design community, which fully explored the material’s structural and sculptural qualities. At this time, Boston was shaped by some of the world’s most influential architects: Breuer , Catalano, Cossutta , Gropius, Kallmann and McKinnell, Le Corbusier, Pei, Rudolph, Sert, Stahl, Stubbins, and Yamasaki, among many other luminaries."


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Hiss Residence to get new "umbrella."


One of the most intriguing creations by the architect Paul Rudolph was the Hiss Residence in Sarasota, Florida where he designed a sun screening "umbrella" over a portion of the roof of the house. The feature was blown away by Hurricane Alma in 1966. The new owners of the iconic house are now attempting to replace it. See story below.


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On the Stafford Harbor, Virginia Resort Project

“You very seldom work on an entire town, and this is the first time I’ve ever done it. The magnitude you’re dealing with makes for different concepts. In other words, an ant isn’t really designed as an elephant. It’s really quite a different thing. And that end I started with the site, from a purely visual, physical viewpoint. I really think of this as a continuation of the land. The intent is to emphasize the site, and so the buildings - in other words, the apartment units, which are intended to vary from six to perhaps as many as twelve stories in height - are put at he ridges of the hills, to emphasize the height of the hills. The lower buildings climb up the hill and merge with the housing so you don’t have a pygmy-giant relationship. Instead it becomes one thing- the high buildings and the low buildings are made into one, so the scale is the same. You not only increase the height of the hill and magnify the relationship of the building to the sky, but when you come to the really large buildings, such as schools, you use them to emphasize the valleys by building into the hill. That way, the void of the valley becomes more apparent. You don’t fill in the valley; you make it more of a valley. The hills are more of the hill, and the valleys more of a valley. And that conceptually carries all the way through this town, with the exception of the marina. A marina is a man-made thing and it has its own kind of geometry in terms of how you place a boat in a slip, and also there is the geometry of the car, so I purposely have shown the marina as a man-made thing which is not irregular. It’s man-made. It’s geometrical.”
Piene, Nan R. "Paul Rudolph Designs a Town." Art In America 55 (July/August 1967): 59.

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Long Island Museum Highlights Modernism, Paul Rudolph


"Arcadia/Suburbia: Architecture on Long Island 1930 - 2010" will bring to light the impressive architectural history of Long Island over the past eighty years at the Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, NY. The role that Long Island has played in the broader development of Modernism and Post-Modernism in the US will be explored, although the vacation architecture of the Hamptons and the East End will not be included. This exhibition will help raise awareness about Modern architecture in the region and encourage preservation.
This exhibition is curated by architectural historian Dr. Erik Neil. It is accompanied by a catalogue “Long Island Moderns: Art & Architecture of the North Shore and Beyond” that includes essays relating to Modernism in both architecture and the fine arts.
Included in the show are Paul Rudolph's Deane Residence in Great Neck and ENDO Laboratories in Garden City.

The exhibition runs from January 16 - April 11, 2010.

The Heckscher Museum of Art
2 Prime Avenue
Huntington, NY 11743-7702


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"It's Christmas Eve"


"I remember one Christmas Eve and he was going to visit his sister in Atlanta. We’re still there. It’s Christmas Eve. He’s still designing, looking at his watch, working until the last moment. That was how much he loved doing what he did. And he did it faster than I’ve ever seen anybody do it. He’d have it already done in his head. Philip Johnson used to say “The speed of his mind…” He’s so underrated that way."
Grattan Gill on Paul Rudolph in: Grindereng, William. Interview with William Grindereng: Longtime Architectural Associate of Architect Paul Rudolph / Interviewed by Bruce Barnes. June 28, 2006 (Transcript p. 16).



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The Means to an End

“One becomes conscious that there are many ways to organize a building; that structure is not an end, nor a beginning, but a means to an end-and that end is to create space that is an appropriate psychological environment. Perhaps the greatest chapel of this century, Ronchamp [Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Le Corbusier, 1954], has a most impure structure- sprayed concrete covers everything. It does not resort to the crutches of geometry and pattern-making, but creates breathing, dynamic spaces appropriate to human use.”
Heyer, Paul. Architects on Architecture: New Directions in America. New York: Walker, c1966. P. 295-296

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The Work of Paul Rudolph Exhibited at the University of Florida


"The exhibit 'Sarasota Modern: The Sarasota School of Architecture, 1941-1966' is open through Dec. 24 at the University of Florida in the Special Collections exhibit gallery on the second floor of the Smathers Library.

This exhibition features architectural models, drawings and photographs from John Howey’s Sarasota School of Architecture Collection in the UF Architecture Archives. Architects Ralph Twitchell, Paul Rudolph, Victor Lundy, Tim Seibert, Jack West and Gene Leedy, among others, are represented."




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Exhibition on the Design of Parking Garages Features the Work of Paul Rudolph


"House of Cars: Innovation and the Parking Garage," an exhibition at the National Building Museum in Washington, DC, explores the unique relationship between parked cars and the built environment and encourages visitors to see these familiar structures in a whole new way. A showcase for innovation; a training ground for the 20th century's best-known architects; and now, a new direction for sustainable city planning; the parking garage tells many stories. The exhibit displays images of garages by Frank Lloyd Wright, Paul Rudolph, Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei and Santiago Calatrava.

The exhibition runs through July 11, 2010.





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Photographs of Restored Kerr Residence, Melbourne Beach FL by Paul Rudolph


A new collection of photographs of the renovated Kerr Residence in Melbourne Beach, FL, designed by Paul Rudolph and Ralph Twitchell in 1950 has been made available to the web site courtesy of Mr. Luke Crisafulli, Kerr Residence Project Manager for the general contractor, Kinley Corporation of Rockledge, FL. Spacecoast Architects, P.A. was the architect for the restoration of the home. See link below. The new images are at the bottom of the listing.


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Endo Labs By Paul Rudolph Officially Changes Hands


Long Island based Metropolitan Realty Associates LLC and its long-time joint-venture equity partner, Angelo Gordon & Co., have completed their acquisition for $7.39 million of one of Long Islands most architecturally significant and centrally located properties, the former Endo Laboratories in Garden City, NY. The property is comprised of two buildings totaling 190,000 square feet on 7.55 acres of land.
Later owned by Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals, the property at 1000 Stewart Avenue, Garden City, NY., and an adjacent 25,000-square-foot, freestanding research and office building at 500 Endo Blvd., were designed by Paul Rudolph in the 1960s. The complex has been renamed The Business and Research Center at Garden City


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Emory University Projects by Paul Rudolph Highlighted on Tour


Check out the pictures of the Cannon Chapel and Pitts Theology Library at Emory University included in this review of a recent tour. Paul Rudolph’s father, Keener Rudolph, was in the first graduating class from the Candler School of Theology at Emory in 1915.




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On New York City, 1959

“We need sequences of space which arouse one’s curiosity, give a sense of anticipation, which beckon and impel us to rush forward and find that releasing space which dominates, which climaxes and acts as a magnet and gives direction. This is well illustrated by the Fifth Avenue entrance to Rockefeller Plaza, where one strides forward in anticipation of seeing the sunken court and its activities. Most important of all we need those outer spaces which encourage social contact, again well illustrated by Rockefeller Plaza, the best outdoor living room in America.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "The Changing Face of New York." American Institute of Architects. Journal 131 (April 1959): 39.

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On the Blue Cross Building

"We’ve made an effort to make the mechanical system into something more meaningful than just keeping you hot or keeping you cold or keeping you dehumidified, or whatever it is. For instance, in this building the support of course comes from the bottom. But the mechanical system is like a great octopus, coming from the top, and encircles the whole building. The hot air and the cold air and the returns are outside the columns, and then the horizontal branches are clearly shown. So that this becomes like a great vine encircling the whole building."
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997, and John Peter, 1917-1998. John Peter Interviews Paul Rudolph [Transcript of Sound Recording]. Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1959.

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"Brutal Honesty: Westport Arts Center looks at Brutalism's rough and raw legacy"


Check out this review of the exhibition "Aggregate: Art and Architecture — A Brutalist Remix" currently at the Westport, CT Arts Center. The show runs until November 22, 2009.


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Grattan Gill to Receive Honorary Degree at UMass Dartmouth


UMass Dartmouth, formerly SMTI, will be awarding an Honorary Degree to Mr. Grattan Gill at its 2009 commencement ceremony.
He will speak at the Graduate Ceremony, Saturday, May 23, 2009.
Grattan Gill played a crucial role in the physical development of the campus as the lead on-site architect, or “job captain,” on Paul Rudolph’s team at Desmond and Lord Architects. His role in the project became central when design architect Paul Rudolph was dismissed after the completion of the Group I building in 1966. With the support of SMTI President Joseph Driscoll and the Board of Trustees, he led a dedicated group of architects in maintaining and preserving the integrity of Rudolph’s design. That team of architects felt an obligation to complete the project designed by a man they regarded as a seminal architect of the time. Gill did more than simply implement Rudolph’s designs. He was compelled to re-design some buildings, most notably the library and campanile. The resulting inner campus is an architectural treasure and one of the few campuses in the country designed and built on a unified plan. One of his contemporary colleagues at Desmond and Lord had this to say about Mr. Gill in a letter following the “Breaking New Ground” symposium on Paul Rudolph in 2005 which was sponsored by the Claire T. Carney Library at UMass Dartmouth.

“I have very high respect for the contributions of Grattan Gill in regard to the campus, as I feel that much of what has been created there is due in no small part to the very fundamental and critical role that Grattan played throughout the project, especially in the early stages and critical communications with Paul Rudolph during all phases. Grattan was the bridge to reality. Without him, I'm afraid that much of what makes that campus would not exist.”

Mr. Gill began his architectural education with a fellowship under famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesen East and West. He continued his formal studies at the Boston Architectural Center and the Rhode Island School of Design. He worked in the office of Desmond and Lord Architects from 1963-1970. He also worked as the project manager for Paul Rudolph, Architect from 1970-1972. He has maintained an independent office in Sandwich, MA since 1973. In addition to his ongoing architectural career, Mr. Gill was also a Professor of Architecture from 1982-2002 at Roger Williams University in Bristol RI. He has published, received awards for his designs and teaching excellence and has exhibited his work. He is a veteran of the United States Army serving in the Korean War. He has served on a number of Boards and Committees in the town of Sandwich relative to historic preservation.

UMass Dartmouth commencement ceremonies will take place in the Vietnam Veterans Peace Memorial Amphitheater. The graduate ceremony will begin at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday, May 23 and the undergraduate ceremony will begin at 10:15 a.m. on Sunday, May 24.


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The New Technologies: You Decide


Check out this web site that poses this question.

"Was Paul Rudolph's Lower Manhattan Expressway project utopian or dystopian? Beauty or beast? Yawn or yell?"


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Rudolph Residence at 23 Beekman Place on Track for Landmark Status


The Paul Rudolph Residence at 23 Beekman Place in New York City is up for consideration as an architectural landmark by the city's Landmark Preservation Commission. See story below.


For information about the LPC, check out their web site.


Recent blog and photo.




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Sir Norman Foster Establishes Visiting Professorship at Yale University


"Pritzker-Prize laureate and Yale School of Architecture alumnus Sir Norman Foster and his family have donated $3 million to Yale School of Architecture to fund a visiting professorship in his name, Yale University President.
Lord Foster said, 'My time at Yale and the people I was exposed to there, in particular Paul Rudolph, Serge Chermayeff and Vincent Scully, had an incredible impact on me. Rudolph created a studio atmosphere which was highly creative, competitive and fueled by a succession of visiting luminaries. That same ‘can-do’ approach has influenced and inspired my practice for more than 40 years — and continues to do so. I hope this gift will similarly inspire future generations of students. It is also a recognition of my personal gratitude to the United States and my commitment to Yale and education.'”


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Chorley Elementary School Slated for Demolition


The John W. Chorley Elementary School in Middletown, NY designed by Paul Rudolph and built in the late 1960s may be demolished and replaced by a parking lot. See article below for details.


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Umbrella House Update. "Umbrella" to be restored.


According to the web site below, the owners of the Umbrella House in Sarasota, FL, designed by Paul Rudolph, have restored the famous residence and are now planning to rebuild the long lost lattice-work "umbrella" which was torn away by Hurricane Alma in 1966.




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On Gropius as a teacher

“Gropius’s greatest contribution was to introduce you to the International Style of the 1920s and 1930s and then to release you. Gropius may be wrong in believing that architecture is a cooperative art. Architects were not meant to design together; it’s either all his work, or mine.”
Rudolph quoted in: Jones, Cranston. Architecture Today and Tomorrow. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961, p. 175.

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Larchmont, NY Residence by Paul Rudolph For Sale


This little known Larchmont, NY Residence by Paul Rudolph is for sale. See the detailed real estate listing below for pictures and facts of this exemplary Paul Rudolph design. The original house was built in 1958 and remodeled by Paul Rudolph in 1982.





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Paul Rudolph Foundation Built Models On Display in Florida


"The Paul Rudolph Foundation has built two models for the exhibit "Modernism at Risk: Modern Solutions for Saving Modern Landmarks", currently on display at the College of Design at the University of Florida."

Check out the photographs of the models below.




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Exhibit Explores Brutalism, Paul Rudolph


"The Westport Arts Center will present Aggregate: Art and Architecture – a Brutalist Remix, Friday, September 25 through Sunday, November 22. WAC will host a public opening reception on Friday, September 25, 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. at the gallery, 51 Riverside Avenue, Westport, Connecticut. Exhibition programming includes a talk on the spirit of Brutalism by architect John Johansen at Westport Arts Center on Sunday, October 4 at 4:00 pm. Curator Terri C. Smith will also give an informal talk about the exhibition on Thursday, October 22 at 7:00 pm.

Aggregate is a new contemporary art exhibition designed to encourage fresh conversations about the impact of Brutalist architecture on society. The show features sculptures, videos, photography, prints, and documents that reflect, evaluate, and expand upon Brutalism’s monumental forms, social goals, gutsy materials, and mixed receptions. Brutalist architects aspired, in part, to create buildings that conveyed the visual immediacy of sculpture and were often designed to surprise, uplift, and challenge their users. The exhibition explores aspects of the theories, failures, materiality (especially concrete) found in Brutalist architecture by including artists who remix these qualities in ways that complicate or comment on them. Aggregate, through a combination of artworks and documents, asks visitors to look at the nuances of this, sometimes polarizing, twentieth-century architectural style.

[New Curator] Smith became aware of the region’s rich, historic connections to Brutalism, especially the teaching and designs of architects such as Paul Rudolph, Louis Kahn, and John Johansen, all of whom had stints at Yale."

See below for more.




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The Architect must be uniquely prejudiced.


“The Architect must be uniquely prejudiced. If his work is to ring with conviction, he will be completely committed to his particular way of seeing the universe. It is only then that every man sees his particular truth. Only a few find themselves in such a way.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "For Perspecta." Perspecta 7 (1961): 51-63.



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Modernism Alive and Well in Singapore


Check out this project being developed in Singapore by OMA (Office for Metropolitan Architecture Beijing) architect Ole Scheeren. The "Interlace" project employs a bold modular look that is being compared to the Colonnade Condominiums of Paul Rudolph as well as other innovative projects in Singapore.



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Harold Bubil and Marty Hylton on "Modernism at Risk"


Marty Hylton, an organizer of the "Modernism at Risk" exhibition at the University of Florida, talks about the efforts to save modernist buildings and the difficulties in doing so in this podcast. Among projects discussed is the demolished Riverview High School in Sarasota FL by Paul Rudolph.


See the text newspaper version of the interview below.


"Modernism at Risk: Modern Solutions for Saving Modern Landmarks, an exhibition organized by the World Monuments Fund and sponsored by Knoll, Inc., will travel to design schools and other venues across the U.S. beginning with the University of Florida’s College of Design, Construction and Planning, where it will be on view from August 31 through September 24, at the gallery in the Architecture Building."



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Cerrito Residence Blueprints Given to the Claire T. Carney Library, UMass Dartmouth


A set of 8 blueprints of the Cerrito Residence, formerly in Watch Hill, a village in the town of Westerly, RI has been given to the Claire T. Carney Library, UMass Dartmouth, the sponsor of this web site. The blueprints depict the floor plans, interior elevations and landscape plan of the house designed by Paul Rudolph in 1955 for Dr. & Mrs. Louis Cerrito. The house was demolished in 2007.

The library received the plans courtesy of the architectural firm via the client, that designed the house that was built to replace the Cerrito Residence.

The plans will be professionally digitized and added to the collection of images on the web site.

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“Modernism at Risk: Modern Solutions for Saving Modern Landmarks,” an exhibition organized by the World Monuments Fund and sponsored by Knoll Inc., will travel to design schools and other venues across the United States beginning with the University of Florida’s College of Design, Construction and Planning.

The exhibit will be on view from Sept. 8-24 at the gallery in the Architecture Building. The exhibition will also travel to New York City, where it will be on view at the American Institute of Architects New York Center for Architecture from Jan. 21 through April 10, 2010."

The five buildings highlighted include Riverview High School in Sarasota, Florida, designed by Paul Rudolph.



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Lunch With Preston Phillips


Well known modernist architect discusses his work and pays homage to Paul Rudolph. "He’s, in my view, the greatest American modernist that ever lived."


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Bronx tour includes Tracey Towers, other projects by Paul Rudolph


Sunday, Aug. 16, 2009
Cool, Green Edge: Mosholu Parkway and Norwood
Projects designed by the 20th-century modernists Paul Rudolph and Philip Johnson can be seen alongside 18th-century architecture during this tour of the North Bronx. 4-6 pm. Municipal Art Society members, $10; non-members, $15. Meet at the Mosholu Parkway Station token booth, the Bronx, NY.


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Theory of Architectural Space


“We need desperately to relearn the art of disposing of buildings to create different kinds of space: the quiet, enclosed, isolated space; the hustling, bustling space, pungent with vitality; the paved, dignified, vast, sumptuous, even awe-inspiring space; the mysterious space; the transition space which defines, separates and yet joins juxtaposed spaces of contrasting character.

We need sequences of space which arouse one’s curiosity, give a sense of anticipation, which beckon and impel us to rush forward to find that releasing space which dominates, which climaxes and acts as a magnet, and gives direction.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "The Changing Philosophy of Architecture." Architectural Forum 101 (July 1954): 120.

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Charles Gwathmey dies in NY


Noted Modernist architect Charles Gwathmey died in Manhattan on August 3, 2009. He was 71. Among his many works was his recent award-winning renovation of the Art & Architecture Building by Paul Rudolph at Yale University which was rededicated as Paul Rudolph hall in November, 2008. For more details on his life and work, see the following articles.






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"Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses" re-released


"Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses" by Joseph King and Christopher Domin has been reissued by Princeton Architectural Press. This article from the Wall Street Journal gives a review of this important book.


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If you're in Sarasota, September 19...


Sept 19th, 2009 from 10AM - 3PM

For details, see below.


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DOCOMOMO - Helps to preserve, promote Modern Architecture


"DOCOMOMO promotes the study, interpretation and protection of the architecture, landscape and urban design of the Modern Movement. It promotes the exchange of knowledge about this important legacy which extends from the planned city and the iconic monument to the house next door. DOCOMOMO is an international organization.
All preservation is local, and so is our organization. We are organized in ten chapters throughout the United States, located in Chicago, Georgia, New England, the New York-Tri State area, Northern California, North Texas, Western Washington. North Carolina, New Orleans and Florida. Our chapters sponsor educational programs and tours; provide technical assistance on the preservation of Modern Movement buildings; conduct research and surveys."

For more information on this organization see their web site below.


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Paul Rudolph is on Facebook


Although the architect has been dead for many years, a Facebook page has been established for him. Check it out at:


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Preserving Modernism in Connecticut


Protecting New Canaan’s Modernism
“Modern Homes Survey: New Canaan Connecticut,” one of the most definitive local studies of Modernist houses in the United States, goes online this week. The site devotes a Web page to each of the 91 homes built in New Canaan between 1939 and 1979. “Nobody knew there were so many,” said Christy MacLear, the executive director of the Philip Johnson Glass House, which sponsored the effort along with several Connecticut preservation groups and the state’s Commission on Culture and Tourism.

The project began after the Micheels House in nearby Westport, Conn., by Paul Rudolph, was demolished in January 2007. When a motion was filed to keep the owners from razing it, Ms. MacLear said, “the judge said there were no stated criteria or documentation to back up claims of the house’s significance.”

The new Web site aims to remedy that, with the history and condition of houses like the one built in 1951 by Marcel Breuer, above. Information:


David Hay, New York Times, July 2, 2009, p. D3




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SMTI / UMass Dartmouth

“From my viewpoint the idea of the campus is that the spines are there and that they might be fleshed out in many different ways, but that the principle of it being one building, i.e. connected, and that the spaces in between are thereby formed on a relatively large scale. You see, I am back to the Piazza San Marco which doesn't have a tree in sight, and all buildings are literally connected with all other buildings, and there are many different uses, and there is focus, a tremendous sense of space, and scale. It remains the greatest outdoor living room in Europe, I believe. Its vitality is there, it has little to do with style, it has little to do with materials, it has to do with the psychology of architectural space.
I do not think it is generally recognized how different conceptually the SMTI campus is. That the whole of America, almost the whole of America, is based on the freestanding building in a plane of space, and that the space in between is simply there. It has no use, no real meaning. And that is a tragedy because the European example is the exact opposite. It took many buildings, built over great length of time, and by placement formed a greater whole, a social whole if you will. And we haven't got the hang of it. But I would insist that the basic thinking at SMTI it is the exact opposite. I don't mean stylistically, which it may or may not be but -- well, it is different of course, but that is not the real point. The real point is that the buildings are connected to form a greater whole, and that whole is a social entity, and that entity is not yet fully developed.
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "Sub Rosa: Interview with Paul Rudolph". Ed. Lasse B. Antonsen, January 12, 1996.

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AIA Honors Seibert Architects for the Restoration of the Cohen Residence


"The Cohen House, built by Paul Rudolph in 1955, was restored by Seibert Architects in 2005-2006. That project has earned a merit award of excellence for renovations and additions from the state chapter of the American Institute of Architects. The award was announced this week and will be presented July 30 [2009] at the AIA Florida convention in Tampa."

Edward "Tim" Seibert is a former associate of Paul Rudolph. The house is currently for sale.




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Riverview demolition reaches halfway point


"The demolition of Riverview High School, which started June 13, has reached the halfway point. It appears there is at least a week's worth of bashing and scooping remaining for the demolition company, Sonny Glassbrenner Inc. of Largo, before the project is complete."


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Demolition of Riverside High School in Sarasota begins


The demolition of Riverside High School designed by Paul Rudolph began on Saturday, June 13, 2009. Click below for news coverage.


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The demolition of Riverside High School designed by Paul Rudolph began on Saturday, June 13, 2009. Click below for news coverage. http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20090614/ARTICLE/906141037/2107/BUS...

"That summer that I graduated, that I got my Bachelor’s degree, I started to work for a firm in Birmingham, Alabama, and indeed worked for them for the whole year. It wasn’t until this time that I discovered that I did not know really how to put materials together, or how to make working drawings. This came as a rude shock to me. I wanted to design, but I was not fully equipped to design. It affected me tremendously. I remember that year I could hardly talk, literally, for a whole year. But I did learn, as I look back on it, more during that year than any other single year. This was a very bad firm, it so happens. The buildings were terrible. But they were put together reasonably well. I learned what it was to keep the weather and wind out and how a building was affected by the unions and the various trades, and the sequence of erection. It was a great eye-opener. It was a very real experience. Then, fortunately for me, that year was immediately followed by an almost equally important year which was spent at Harvard with Walter Gropius [1879-1964], who undoubtedly was the most important single influence or man who influenced me. He made very clear what the real issues were, and did not require you, unlike many people seem to feel, that you follow or do it the way he did it. He set me free. This opened up tremendous avenues for me to explore in my own way."
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997, and John Peter, 1917-1998. John Peter Interviews Paul Rudolph [Transcript]. Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1959.
Recorded in New Haven, CT on March 27, 1959.

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Address by Grattan Gill at the Graduate Commencement of the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, May 23, 2009


Mr. Grattan Gill, Architect and associate of Paul Rudolph during the construction of the campus at SMTI / UMass Dartmouth received an honorary degree from the university at its recent commencement. He also made the keynote address at the Graduate Commencement ceremony. Click on the link below for his remarks.





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Bangladesh (Formerly East Pakistan) Agricultural University

"It was during that time [mid 1960s] that Rudolph was offered a job doing the East Pakistan Agricultural University in what is now Bangladesh. He had done some preliminaries for it, but had not gotten very far. He was getting busy. He wasn’t sure if he wanted to do it. He asked me about it. I said I thought it was important to do it – to do a good job. He signed a contract, I think kind of reluctantly. I think he really did it because he thought it would be good for me. We started working on it. ...Rudolph never saw it. He was in Dhaka a couple of times and each time he made a point of telling me he did not visit it. He had a funny relationship to the project."
William Grindereng interviewed by Bruce Barnes, June 28, 2006

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Paul Rudolph Interiors


Check out this blog which has some nice photographs of Paul Rudolph interiors. The site has posted other images of Rudolph's work in previous issues.




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Architectural Photography-Paul Rudolph's Sarasota High School Addition


"I recently finished working with an architect and historic preservationist on the conservation of Paul Rudolph's Sarasota High School additions. The buildings were in danger of demolition and I got to be part of a team that proposed it's reuse through a new design scheme. These are some photos I took of the structures. The emphasis is on Rudolph's concepts of suspension, repetition, streaming natural light and ventilation as well as his use of industrious and modern material (pre-cast concrete, steel and glass)."
sereen GUALTIERI photography & design




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Bidding farewell to the old Riverview campus


With the imminent demolition of Riverview High School, people in Sarasota have been reminiscing about the Paul Rudolph designed campus. Check out these articles including the first one which includes a news clip from the local TV station.




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The Art and Architecture Building on YouTube


A New Home for the Arts: Restoring Paul Rudolph Hall, Construction of Jeffrey H. Loria Center for the History of Art
and Robert B. Haas Family Arts Library.

"Dean Robert A. M. Stern of the Yale School of Architecture and Charles Gwathmey, Partner, Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects, tell the story of the Yale Art and Architecture building: from its lauded beginnings, the period of renovation after a tragic fire, and its new beginning as Paul Rudolph Hall in combination with Jeffrey H. Loria Center for the History of Art and the Robert B. Haas Family Arts Library."


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They said it


“Less is more.” Mies van der Rohe;

“Much ado about next to nothing” Frank Lloyd Wright;

“Almost nothing is too much.” Reyner Banham;

“Less is a bore.” Robert Venturi;

“Too much is never enough.” Morris Lapidus;

“More and more, more is more.” Rem Koolhaas;

“Nothing ever measures up to what I expect, nothing.” Paul Rudolph

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Paul Rudolph Foundation to Sell Original Rudolph Sketches


"Original sketches of the New Haven Government Center are now for sale in the showroom at Modulightor [246 East 58th Street, New York, NY]. An unbuilt project (1968 - 1981), it experienced various scheme alterations that ultimately did not materialize due to inadequate funding. Sketches vary from one done on the back of an airplane itinerary to others more refined showing complex sections and elevations.

If you are interested in acquiring these beautiful drawings, please contact Judith York Newman at SPACED: Gallery of Architecture at (212) 213-1720 or Modulightor at (212) 371-0336. Half the proceeds will go directly to the Paul Rudolph Foundation."




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Rudolph and Predock buildings compared in "Chronicle of Higher Education" article.


Paul Rudolph's Art & Architecture Building at Yale University and Antoine Predock's School of Architecture and Planning, University of New Mexico are compared in the latest issue of "The Chronicle of Higher Education."
See the abridged online version below which includes the photographs.


See more of the Predock building below:


Biemiller, Lawrence. "A Shared Vision: The Architecture Schools at the University of New Mexico and Yale University Have Some Intriguing Similarities." The Chronicle of Higher Education May 1, 2009: B14-16.
Secondary title is a "A Tale of Two Buildings."

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Riverview High good-bye party planned


"Visit Paul Rudolph’s Riverview High School Masterpiece In Sarasota...Students and former students will gather Saturday, May 23 for a goodbye party to the building. While it is a massive waste to rip it down, we at least hope something amusing is done with the pieces, like being recycled into fishing reefs. If you can’t get there May 23, it will be up for a number of months as the school moves into its new building, which is the size and scale of a modern university."
Read more at:


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Diane Lewis Lectures on Riverview High at RISD


"Won + Lost?: Modern Architecture USA: Survival in the Sub-urbis" Architect Diane Lewis lectures on the competition-winning "Riverview Music Quadrangle," a project to save Paul Rudolph's first civic building. Since 1982, Lewis has served both as principal at her own firm and as a professor architecture at The Cooper Union School of Architecture. Her minimalist approach emphasizes refined, inventive use of structural elements and space, integrating the character of preexisting on conditions.
Thursday, April 30, 6:30pm
Michael P. Metcalf Auditorium, Chace Center

For more information:
Deborah Clemons
Program Assistant, Education Department
Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design
224 Benefit Street
Providence, RI 02903
ph 401-454-6530; fax 401-427-6945

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“All architecture is, for me, a matter of participation of the human being – contrary to what a lot of people have had to say. I regard it as memorable space. It must be acoustically and visually rewarding. You should be aware that you have arrived at a room where theater is going to take place. You ought to feel you’re absolutely at the same level as the performance. I don’t think it can be just any old room; it needs to be a breathing, dynamic thing.”
The Changing Practice: Theaters." Progressive Architecture 46 (October 1965): 160-220.

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Chris Mottalini Exhibits in Brooklyn


Chris Mottalini's series of photograph's on the last days of three of Paul Rudolph's residential commissions, "After You Left, They Took It Apart; Demolished Paul Rudolph Homes" is being exhibited at The Range, 170 North 4th St. [between Bedford & Driggs], Brooklyn, NY, April 9-May 9, 2009. The opening is April 9 from 7-11pm. See below for details.


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Color and Concrete


One of the frequent questions that newcomers to the UMass Dartmouth campus have is about the lack of interior color to offset the concrete construction. The photo attached below shows that there was in fact a significant attempt by the architect to ornament the interior of the buildings with unique finishes and vibrant color. This photo, taken in 1967, less than a full year from the opening of the building is an excellent example of that attempt. The signature orange carpet, which he also used in his Art and Architecture Building at Yale was bold and cheerful. The matching seat cushions and wall hangings were a complement to the carpet. Also note the stylish metal mesh curtains which adorned all of the windows in Group 1 at this time. The last remaining metal mesh curtains hang anonymously in the Group 2 lounges.


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A rare chair by architect Paul Rudolph in acrylic and chrome to be auctioned


A rare chair by the American architect Paul Rudolph in acrylic and chrome will be sold at an auction at the Rago Arts & Auction Center in Lambertville NJ, on April 25 and 26, 2009. The chair is from the collection of designer Juan Montoya.

Auction Contact Information

Sollo Rago is located at 333 North Main Street with Annex Gallery at 204 North Union Street, Lambertville NJ. For more information phone 609-397-9374 or visit www.sollorago.com.

Bidding Information

Bid in person, by phone, by left bid or online through the-saleroom.com and liveauctioneers.com

Exhibition Preview

Saturday, April 18 - Friday, April 24, 2009 from 10 - 6 pm and by appointment. Doors open at 9 a.m. the mornings of the sale.

Rago Arts and Auction Center
CONTACT: Marilyn White of Rago Arts & Auction Center, +1-973-783-3649,

See more below.



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How Drawings Work

"I try to find a graphic means of indicating what’s happening to the space. Space can move quickly or slowly. It can twist and turn. Space extends the dynamics of any building, because if the thrusting and counter-thrusting of the spaces aren’t balanced, then people feel unstable, the building doesn’t feel harmonious."
Zinsser, John. "Staying Creative; Artistic Passion Is a Lifelong Pursuit - and These Mature Masters Prove the Point. (Otto Luening, Elizabeth Catlett, Paul Rudolph)." 50 Plus 25 (December 1985): 55.

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Brutalism and the College and University Campus


This article from McGill University in Canada is a concise but very informative read on "Brutalism" in architecture as it was built on college and university campuses in the mid-20th century. It is particularly useful to those unsure of the meaning of this controversial term. Paul Rudolph is briefly mentioned.


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Architecture of the Possible


"Mies was wonderful when he was asked how he went about designing the Seagram Building [1957-1958]. He said he read the New York City Building Code. I think that's an absolutely accurate and marvelous answer. It's what all of us do. You have to know what's possible. Architecture is not a question of the purely theoretical if you're interested in building buildings. It's the art of what is possible."
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "Interview with Paul Rudolph.". Ed. Robert Bruegmann. Chicago: Department of Architecture, Art Institute of Chicago, February 28, 1986.


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Philip Johnson on Paul Rudolph

"Rudolph and I never could keep up the same quality of conversation because Rudolph is an artist. That really, I suppose, has been his problem throughout life. He is a real artist. He knew what he wanted, knew what shapes he wanted. And he was more interested in those than he was in the – although there’s nothing wrong with his intellect. He’s a great teacher, as you know. Oh, my God, you were his student, weren’t you? But somehow you wouldn’t put him in that class of intellectural."
Johnson, Philip, 1906-2005, and Robert A. M. Stern. The Philip Johnson Tapes: Interviews by Robert A.M. Stern. Ed. Kazys Varnelis. New York: Monacelli Press, 2008. pp. 99-100.

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Nikolaus Pevsner's Comments on the Opening of the Art and Architecture building "Reread" by the Paul Rudolph Foundation


In a blog entitled "Rereading History" posted on March 4, 2009, the Paul Rudolph Foundation gave a brief but informative review of the controversial comments on the Art and Architecture Building at Yale University by critic Nikolaus Pevsner at the opening of the building in 1963. Check it out below.




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"What, then, are the criteria that you would use in teaching?"


"You go back to age-old principles. I think there are definite and definable theories on how to relate volume to volume, mass to mass, texture and scale; the relationship of a building to the ground, to the sky, to neighbors. I really believe that you can define X number of approaches. The problem is to see that the approach is consistent, that each component part belongs to the same family of ideas."
Barnett, Jonathan. "Paul Rudolph Cites Old Principles as Bases for Analysis of Today's Work." Architectural Record 131 (January 1962): 12.



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Huxtable and Giovannini Comment on the Restoration of the A & A


Ada Louise Huxtable and Joseph Giovannini, both very familiar with the work of Paul Rudolph, have each published articles reviewing the restoration of the Art and Architecture Building at Yale University, now rededicated as Paul Rudolph Hall.
See the urls below.



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On one of his earliest memories of architecture

"Paul Rudolph was about six. Like Frank Lloyd Wright’s, his father was a preacher- Southern Methodist, and forever on the move from one parish to another. A new church building was in the offing at the time, and he grew up with memories of the architectural drawings which had been scattered about:
'I never really gave up the idea of becoming an architect after that. There are two things I remember being fantastically impressed with. First of all, the weekly revivals. And then the first modern structure I saw - Wright’s Rosenbaum House in Florence, Alabama. I can remember taking my parents and making them drive me to see that house- the carport, those low ceilings, the clerestory light coming in overhead, the sequence of space. In fact, to this day, I remember that house as the most vivid structure I have ever seen.'"
Marlin, William. "Paul Rudolph: Drawings." Architectural Forum 138 (June 1973): 46-47.

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Milam Residence by Paul Rudolph to be Open for Tour at Jacksonville Architectural Symposium.


"The Jacksonville Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and DOCOMOMO/US Florida are again sponsoring a one-day symposium highlighting the achievements of architecture from the recent past in Northeast Florida.
'Modern Architectural Classics at the Beach' will be held at the St. Paul’s by the Sea Episcopal Church (465 11th Ave. N., Jacksonville Beach) on March 7, 2009. A morning session with presentations by North Florida’s most well-know architects and by nationally recognized architectural scholars will begin at 9:00 a.m. and last until 12:00 p.m.
The tour will feature the Milam House, Paul Rudolph’s last design for a Florida residence and one of the most famous Modern buildings in Florida."


For registration information see the AIA JAX web site below:


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On the Theater in the Creative Arts Center, Colgate University

“The Colgate Theater has some of the features of an Elizabethan theater: four side stages (two levels on each side) and an apron that projects into the audience in a V form. The stage continues in front of the side stages, and along the sides of the audience. It is the level you actually enter on. Part of my notion is that when you enter the theater you are on the stage, and then you go down and take your seats.”
"The Changing Practice: Theaters." Progressive Architecture 46 (October 1965): 160-220.

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Film on Riverview High School and Other Projects by Paul Rudolph


Metropolitan Magazine and Matthew Kohn created this very perceptive film on the effort to save Riverview High School in Sarasota, Florida designed by Paul Rudolph. The 21 minute production includes interviews with a number of architects and highlights other projects as well. Highly recommended.


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On the Government Service Center, Boston, MA


The generating ideas of most traditional cities are pedestrian and vehicular circulation, streets, squares, terminuses, with their space clearly defined by buildings. This means linked buildings united to form comprehensible exterior spaces. The Boston Government Service Center is the opposite of Le Corbusier’s dictum “down with the street.” It started with three separate buildings, their clients, architects and methods of financing. We didn’t build three separate buildings, as others had proposed, but one continuous building which defined the street, formed a pedestrian plaza, and utilized a multi-storied building (not yet built) to announce the development from a great distance. The scale of the lower buildings was heightened at the exterior perimeter (street) so that it read in conjunction with automobile traffic (columns 60-70 feet high plus toilet and stair cores at the corners were used). The scale at the plaza was much more intimate using stepped floors which revealed each floor level, making a bowl of space. As one approaches the stepped six-story-high building it reduces itself to only one story. Since the high-rise building is an integral part of the whole, it calls for a particular kind of high-rise building.

You would prefer to finish the project yourself?

The architect must understand the role the multi-storied building plays in the ensemble. The multi-storied building was designed as a cluster of pivoting shafts, each turning at the corners so that it leads the pedestrian into the plaza. It was not just another skyscraper. The ensemble illustrates partially the principles of a mega structure. It is multi-functional; it accepts the car by defining the space of the street plus treating the garage as an entrance to the complex; it is integrated into the surrounding fabric (at the street intersections there are small piazzas, one of Boston’s traditions). The bowl of the plaza is the counterpart of Beacon Hill and its state house one block away. It has nothing to do with stylistic elements (you could add classical details to the columns and cornices and it wouldn’t matter very much – I don’t know what could happen at the multi-storied building). When finished properly it will be “a place.”
[The building referred to as “multi-storied” and “high rise” was designed by Rudolph but never built]
Davern, Jeanne M. "A Conversation with Paul Rudolph." Architectural Record 170 (March 1982): 90-97.

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On the Wallace Residence, Athens, AL

"Years ago I designed a house in Alabama based on Greek Revival architecture of the South. I was brought up in that area, I knew it well, and my first memories of architecture were the Greek Revival buildings of the area and the sharecroppers' cottages, both of which intrigued me no end. Both seemed to have a complete validity - in other words, vernacular and so-called high architecture. This house in Alabama has double-story-high porches on four sides, over-scaled columns not based on structural need but on character - yet it's a modern house. It doesn't ever deal with Greek columns, capitals and bases, cornices, nor the use of symbols, but the image of the south is very clear. The design comes from the climate, the environment, how people live, what was suitable. It gets very hot in summer; therefore, the enclosure is put in man-made shade, which lowers the energy consumption of the air-conditioning system. It has many symmetrical parts, but the circulation and spatial organization is asymmetrical. If you know the location of this house it is clear that it really comes from the Greek Revival architecture of the South, but it certainly doesn't have any Greek Revival symbols, although its image is similar because it tries to solve some of the same problems."
Davern, Jeanne M. "A Conversation with Paul Rudolph." Architectural Record 170 (March 1982): 90-97.

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On SMTI / UMass Dartmouth


"SMU is a new commuter campus on a very large piece of land well removed from other structures. Its design started with Jefferson's University of Virginia and his defined "lawn" surrounded by pavilions connected with covered walks on two sides with the rotunda addressing the view on the opposite side. SMU's "lawn" is a spiralling space, defined by a series of connected buildings on opposites sides, with a narrowed entry at one end and an open ended space at the other where the spiral becomes much larger, is marked by a campanile, and turns towards the lake. This central pedestrian complex was set in a mile diameter access drive connecting to an inner ring of parking. I got fired before the "spiral" was finished but fortunately I had some friends in other architectual offices who saw it through.

Desmond and Lord?

Desmond and Lord, yes - they believed in the scheme and carried out most of the buildings which define the central space."
Davern, Jeanne M. "A Conversation with Paul Rudolph." Architectural Record 170 (March 1982): 90-97.

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Architectural Record Weighs in On the Renovation and Addition to the Art and Architecture Building at Yale University

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New Book Documents Last Days of Three Paul Rudolph Homes


A new book of photographs self-published by Chris Mottalini documents the last images of three residences by Paul Rudolph: the Micheels Residence in Westport, CT, the Cerrito Residence in Watch Hill, RI and the Twitchell Residence in Siesta Key, Sarasota, FL. "after you left, they took it apart: demolished paul rudolph homes" is available in a limited edition from the author at:




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Tuskegee University Chapel Receives Award


"The Alabama Architectural Foundation recently awarded Tuskegee University a Distinguished Building Award for the University's Chapel. The award recognizes buildings over 25 years old which are still considered exemplary and noteworthy."

The Chapel was designed by Paul Rudolph and constructed between 1967 and 1969.


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Paul Rudolph Symposium to be held At Yale University


"Reassessing Rudolph: Architecture and Reputation" a symposium will be held at Yale University on Friday and Saturday, January 23-24, 2009. Sponsored by the Yale School of Architecture and convened by Timothy Rohan the symposium coincides with the rededication of the Art and Architecture Building as Paul Rudolph Hall as well as the accompanying "Model City" exhibit. Visiting scholars to the symposium include Robert Bruegmann, Ken Tadashi Oshima and Adrian Forty. Contact the school at 203-432-2889 for free registration and more information.


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On the Psychology of Space


"People, if they think about architecture at all, usually think in terms of the materials. While that’s important, it’s not the thing that determines the psychology of the building. It’s really the compression and release of space, the lighting of that space—dark to light—and the progression of one space to another. Because one remembers in that sense. Architecture is very much like music—just as you remember the introductory themes of any great symphony; architectural themes are experienced throughout the space from within. And that’s what unifies it."
Zinsser, John. "Staying Creative; Artistic Passion Is a Lifelong Pursuit - and These Mature Masters Prove the Point. (Otto Luening, Elizabeth Catlett, Paul Rudolph)." 50 Plus 25 (December 1985): 49-55.



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Review of "Reassessing Rudolph: Architecture and Reputation" a symposium held at Yale University, January 23 and 24, 2009


This article, "Recalling Rudolph," is a review of the symposium held at Yale University on architect Paul Rudolph by The Yale Daily News.


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Paul Rudolph in Buffalo, NY


Check out this excellent illustrated review of the work of Paul Rudolph in Buffalo, NY, particularly his Waterfront Development Project, 1970-1974.


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From the new book, "Writings on Architecture" speech accepting the Brunner Prize in 1958.


“As an architect, most of my efforts are absorbed in being an administrator, committee man, business man, and consultant—and, by choice, a teacher. Building committees sometimes concern themselves with only these qualities, but actually they are without meaning unless the artist pervades every act.

Yet today it is the artist that you honor. It is for this reason that it is so deeply felt, and is received with so much gratitude. For, to me, the architect’s function as artist means everything; it is indeed both the reason and the reward for all his efforts. Insofar as he is an artist, the architect must inevitably be subject to the same rule as any other artist, that of personal expression. Here he is alone, despite his many roles.

Architecture is still an art, and in its name, I accept the Arnold Brunner Memorial Award with sincere gratitude.”

Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. Writings on Architecture. Ed. Robert A. M. Stern. New Haven: Yale School of Architecture: Distributed by Yale University Press, 2008.

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The Architecture of Paul Rudolph Discussed on Connecticut Public Radio


John Dankosky of Connecticut Public Radio and Timothy Rohan, Paul Rudolph scholar, discuss the architect's work in New Haven and elsewhere in a podcast that aired January 5, 2009. See link below to download the interview.


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The Restoration of the A & A cited as one of architecture's "10 Best"


Paul Goldberger writing in the New Yorker has cited the restoration of the Paul Rudolph designed Art & Architecture Building at Yale University by Charles Gwathmey as one of the best architectural efforts of the year.


This follows the Chicago Tribune article by Blair Kamin which also included the A & A on the top of the list.


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Another Paul Rudolph Building Threatened with Demolition


The Chorley Elementary School in Middletown, NY by Paul Rudolph is under the threat of demolition by the voters there. See article below.



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On Acquiring Commissions

“I've never known any project that didn't come about circuitously, whether foreign or domestic.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "Interview with Paul Rudolph." Ed. Robert Bruegmann. Chicago: Department of Architecture, Art Institute of Chicago, February 28, 1986.

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New Book on Paul Rudolph

"Writings on Architecture" edited by Robert A.M. Stern and published by Yale University Press has just been released ($20.00). I have not seen a copy yet but its described as covering the architectural and educational writings of Paul Rudolph. It also includes many photographs published for the first time.

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Recent Articles on Paul Rudolph inspired by the Renovation of the A & A

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24th annual Hall of Fame awards dinner, presented by Interior Design magazine


"The best anecdote of the night was told by Lawrence Scarpa, who worked for Paul Rudolph in New York City early in his career. A client of Rudolph’s requested a colonial-revival style house, an odd request obviously for anyone familiar with Rudolph’s work. Scarpa asked Rudolph if he intended to design such a residence. Rudolph said yes, and proceeded to design a Paul Rudolph house for the client. The client apparently loved the drawings, but asked Rudolph if it was indeed colonial revival. Rudolph assured him it was, and the client said “I’ll take it.” The humor, and the lesson, was lost on no one in the audience."

Weinberg, Larry, "The Fame Game." Interior Design, December 4, 2008


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The Paul Rudolph Foundation Rebuts Criticism of Recent Article


From the Paul Rudolph Foundation web site.

The Paul Rudolph Foundation found itself the subject of a short and nasty article published in a local NYC weekly this past week. We were told, when we were orginally approached for the article, that it would be about the recent rededication of Rudolph Hall. As it turned out, the author had something else up his sleeve - including misquotes and misinformation.

In response, the Paul Rudolph Foundation released the following letter today to the editors:

December 2, 2008

New York Media
75 Varick Street
New York, NY 10013

To the Editors of New York Magazine:

We appreciate and share David Hay’s interest in the preservation of Paul Rudolph’s legacy. The Paul Rudolph Foundation is alarmed by the growing threats posed to Mr. Rudolph’s buildings and the work of his contemporaries John Johanson, Eero Saarinen, Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer both across the country and abroad.

Like the Lautner Foundation mentioned by Mr. Hay, we also work with realtors and share current listings on our website:www.paulrudolph.org. For the three buildings lost since Paul’s death in 1997, we worked to place the property with interested buyers who recognized its architectural significance and shared our goal of its preservation. The Twitchell Residence (depicted in article) belonged to an architect who authored a book on Rudolph’s Florida work. It was only demolished as a last resort, due to heavy storm damage, and only after being fully documented. When the Cerrito Residence fell in 2007, Paul’s most recent building to meet its demise, the Foundation had worked personally with Mr. Hay to put the home in proper hands. Unfortunately, the deed holders refused to engage our efforts once a preservation plan had been formalized.

The founder of the Paul Rudolph Foundation and key patron, Mr. Ernst Wagner, fought vehemently with other supporters in 1999 to preserve Paul’s legendary apartment at Beekman Place as a place for the study of his contribution to modern architecture. When this effort ended with its sale and subsequent gutting, he offered work and archival space at the Modulightor townhouse to pursue the final wishes of Mr. Rudolph.

We welcome and encourage any inquiries into our activities and upcoming exhibition during our next open house, Friday, December 5th from 6-8 pm at the Foundation’s headquarters, located in the Rudolph-designed Modulightor Building at 246 E. 58th Street, or online at information@paulrudolph.org.

As the recent renovation of Yale’s Art & Architecture building indicates, there are success stories. And with each loss we have gained supporters and experience as how to work more effectively to preserve Paul’s work for future generations. As Paul himself once said, “only time can ascertain the true artists.”


Kelvin Dickinson
Sean Khorsandi
Fong Huang
Ernst Wagner
George Balle

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David Hay reviews the loss and grim outlook for some of Paul Rudolph's Buildings


In "Modern Antiquity: The Paul Rudolph Housing Crisis" David Hay writing in New York Magazine reviews the poor history and perhaps worse future of a number of Paul Rudolph's buildings.



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Time Magazine's Richard Lacayo Reviews the Rededication of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale University


This is a review of the rededication of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale University as Paul Rudolph Hall on the weekend of November 6-9, 2008. It is concise, informative and illustrated.


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On why he maintained a small practice

“Architecture is a personal effort, and the fewer people coming between you and your work the better. This keeps some people from practicing architecture, like the sculptor Nivola [Constantino Nivola, 1911-1988], who says “I cannot stand anybody coming between me and my work.” This is a very real problem, and you can only stretch one man so far. The heart can fall right out of a building during the production of working drawings, and sometimes you would not even recognize your own building unless you followed it through. If an architect cares enough, and practices architecture as an art, then he must initiate design; he must create rather than make judgments.”
Heyer, Paul. Architects on Architecture: New Directions in America. New York: Walker, 1966

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Reviews and a Slideshow of the Rededication of the Art & Architecture Building as Paul Rudolph Hall at Yale University


Check out this review and slideshow on the rededication of the Art and Architecture Building at Yale University on the weekend of November 6-9, 2008.


From the Yale Daily News.


From the Smogr blog


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Podcast Interview of Carl Abbott by Harold Bubil


Sarasota, Florida architect Carl Abbott, a former student of Paul Rudolph at Yale University is interviewed by Harold Bubil of the Sarasota Herald-Tribune in this informative podcast. Abbott was a member of a distinguished panel that included his former classmates at Yale, Norman Foster and Richard Rogers at the November 8, 2008 rededication of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale as Paul Rudolph Hall. Abbott reflects on the influence of Paul Rudolph as an architect and an educator.


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Boston Globe's Robert Campbell weighs in on the renovation of the A & A. Speculates on what could be for Boston City Hall


In this article, the Boston Globe architectrual critic reviews the renovation of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale University and its upcoming rededication as Paul Rudolph Hall. He considers the implications of a similar effort for Boston City Hall as well as surveying the career of Paul Rudolph. He also cites this web site as a source of information on the architect.


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Rededication of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale as Paul Rudolph Hall. Schedule of Events


The following is the schedule of events at Yale University commemorating Paul Rudolph and the restoration of his Art & Architecture Building.

Contact the address below for more information.


All of the events will be held at the A & A, Paul Rudolph Hall
Thursday, 6 November 2008 (Open House)
Peter Eisenman
Louis I. Kahn Visiting Professor of Architectural Design
“Rudolph Then and Now”

Rededication of Paul Rudolph Hall, Loria Center for History of Art & Robert B. Haas Family Art Library:
7 – 9 November 2008

Friday, 7 November 2008
(Keynote Address: Rededication)
Timothy Rohan
“The Enigmatic Architecture of Paul Rudolph”

Saturday, 8 November 2008
Student-led Tours of Rudolph Hall
Art History Panel
Panel Discussion: “The Rudolph Years: Yale and the Architectural Academy” with Stanley Tigerman, ’63 M.Arch,; Allan Greenberg ’65 M.Arch; Alexander Tzonis, ’63 M.Arch
Panel Discussion: “The Rudolph Years: Yale and the World” with Lord Norman Foster, ’62 M.Arch; Lord Richard Rogers, ’62 M.Arch; Carl Abbott, Jr, ’62 M.Arch
Dedication Ceremony
Ribbon Cutting
Closing Reception

Sunday, 9 November 2008
9:00AM – 5:00PM, Special Architecture Gallery Hours, Rudolph Hall
Open to the Public

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Rudolph Cited in Blog on Megastructures


Dave Brown in a blog entilted "Are we really ready for the "Bottom Up"? On Bottom Up Design, Megastructures, and City Regeneration" cites Paul Rudolph and his work in Singapore, specifically the Colonnade Condominium project as an example. Check out the full article below.


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Rededication of the Art & Architecture Building at Yale as Paul Rudolph Hall. Schedule of Events


The following is the schedule of events at Yale University commemorating Paul Rudolph and the restoration of his Art & Architecture Building.

Contact the address below for more information.


All of the events will be held at the A & A, Paul Rudolph Hall
Thursday, 6 November 2008 (Open House)
Peter Eisenman
Louis I. Kahn Visiting Professor of Architectural Design
“Rudolph Then and Now”

Rededication of Paul Rudolph Hall, Loria Center for History of Art & Robert B. Haas Family Art Library:
7 – 9 November 2008

Friday, 7 November 2008
(Keynote Address: Rededication)
Timothy Rohan
“The Enigmatic Architecture of Paul Rudolph”

Saturday, 8 November 2008
Student-led Tours of Rudolph Hall
Art History Panel
Panel Discussion: “The Rudolph Years: Yale and the Architectural Academy” with Stanley Tigerman, ’63 M.Arch,; Allan Greenberg ’65 M.Arch; Alexander Tzonis, ’63 M.Arch
Panel Discussion: “The Rudolph Years: Yale and the World” with Lord Norman Foster, ’62 M.Arch; Lord Richard Rogers, ’62 M.Arch; Carl Abbott, Jr, ’62 M.Arch
Dedication Ceremony
Ribbon Cutting
Closing Reception

Sunday, 9 November 2008
9:00AM – 5:00PM, Special Architecture Gallery Hours, Rudolph Hall
Open to the Public

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Another blogger with interesting comments on the A & A and its addition


Yale School of Architecture - New Wing

"In simple language I would say it looks mediocre. But in architecture we were taught not to use such simple and plain terms. So, in more elaborated architectural language I would say that it has diluted the powerful vertical and horizontal volumes and textures created by the Yale School of Architecture by adding a number of seemingly random, bitty shapes to the composition."

See complete blog below




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Jewett Arts Center Celebrates 50th Anniversary This October


The Jewett Arts Center at Wellesley College is celebrating 50 years with a series of events commemorating the building designed by Paul Rudolph. See the web site below for details.


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The Life of the Buildings

"My buildings are like children. And when the Art and Architecture Building at Yale was burned, I felt that somebody had died. My buildings are very real presences for me, and they change—are changed—and have a life of their own."
Zinsser, John. "Staying Creative; Artistic Passion Is a Lifelong Pursuit - and These Mature Masters Prove the Point. (Otto Luening, Elizabeth Catlett, Paul Rudolph)." 50 Plus 25 (December 1985): 49-55.

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Rededication of Paul Rudolph Hall at Yale University


Rededication of Paul Rudolph Hall and the Dedication of the Jeffrey H. Loria Center for the History of Art and the Robert B. Haas Library will take place at Yale University on the weekend of November 7 and 8, 2008. See details of this important event at the web site below.


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Charles Gwathmey on his renovation and addition to the Art and Architecture Building, Yale University

“It was very complimentary for me to have been asked to do this because I loved Paul and because of my time here. Paul used to recruit Der Scutt (Yale, ’61) and me to ink perspective drawings of the building at night. As he designed, he struggled about being across the street from Louis Kahn. For me to be able to come back and restore the building and also do an addition is a great way to express my gratitude.”
"Charles Gwathmey and Robert A. M. Stern." Constructs. Fall 2008: 2-3.
A discussion between Dean Robert A. M. Stern (Yale '65) and Charles Gwathmey (Yale '62) on the occasion of the renovation of the A & A Building (Paul Rudolph Hall) at Yale University, which will be rededicated on November 8, 2008, and the new art history building, the Jeffrey Loria Center for the History of Art."

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Blogger admires Rudolph's work at MoMA's "Home Delivery" Exhibit


The "Art Ongoing" blog had this to say about the Paul Rudolph entry currently on exhibit the "Home Delivery" show at MoMA.

"It is always interesting how quality shows, how the superior entry will make its presence known. Of all of the beautifully made models on display here, none of them seem so human and so logical and so right as the model of a design by Paul Rudolph. I can imagine an entire exhibition being built around this work…his work in fact. I hope the time will soon be right for that to happen."

For the full review see below.


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Yale's Art & Architecture Building to be Rededicated as Paul Rudolph Hall


As noted in previous blogs, Yale University has planned a major event to rededicate Paul Rudolph's A & A in his honor. The festivities begin on Friday, November 7, 2008.
Click on the url below for details.


Tim Rohan will be giving the keynote address on Friday Evening, November 7.

Note the panel discussions scheduled for Saturday, Novemeber 8. Norman Foster, Richard Rogers and other important names in contemporary architecture will be discussing the work of Paul Rudolph.

An exhibit of Rudolph's work in New Haven is also part of the event.

This will be a historic gathering in the appreciation of Paul Rudolph.

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On the Revere Development, Sarasota, Florida


“Much worthy effort has been spent in finding better relationships between residential areas of all varieties and the town as a whole. However, it seems to us that the detached house, so popular in America and receiving so much attention as an individual unit, has for the most part simply been lined up on each side of the planners’ or speculative builders’ beautifully located cul-de-sac and that is the end of it. When the houses themselves are identical the results are particularly disastrous. Relationships between one house and its neighbor and devices to relieve the monotony of too much repetition and still keep within economic bounds are a real and urgent architectural problem and to us an exciting one…

The one tool which is the architect’s special weapon, the handling of inner and outer space, has seldom been applied to this problem. Our proposals are fundamentally concerned here with the relationships between the house and its private outdoor living and work spaces. Finally and possibly most important it is a search for means to create a coordinated whole out of the repetition of basically similar elements without creating monotony.”

Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "Revere House Grouping." Architectural Forum 89 (December 1948): 28.

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MoMA exhibition catalog features project by Paul Rudolph.

"Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling" is now available. This large format, hardcover catalog of the exhibit at MoMA has been received here at the Claire T. Carney Library, UMass Dartmouth. Paul Rudolph's Oriental Masonic Gardens project in New Haven, CT is included in the book as well as the exhibition. The exhibit continues through October 20, 2008.

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Addition to Yale's Art and Architecture Building Receives Harsh Review


Philip Langdon, writing in the Hartford Courant on September 14, 2008 presented a withering review of Charles Gwathmey's Jeffrey Loria Center for the History of Art. This building is attached to Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building which is soon to be rededicated as Paul Rudolph Hall. See article below.


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More on Urbanism

“We must develop some kind of consistent theory for relating one building to another and to the environment. The Ecole des Beaux Arts did have such a theory. I’m not proposing that we bring it back, but in the nineteenth century when the Ecole des Beaux Arts was in full swing, they did have a comprehensible theory in regard to the relationship of one building to another—as did earlier periods of architecture.
The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair has been damned for a great many years, but it is time we reassessed it. It was a comprehensible whole, not a collection of individual buildings. We may not like the individual buildings, but they read as a group. The spaces between them were well thought-out; some buildings served as anchors and dominated less important ones by their size, placement, proportions and relationship to the ground, the sky and their neighbors.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "The Form of the City." Canadian Architect 4 (March 1959): 49-67.

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NYT Article Praises Renovation of the A & A


A recent article by Nicolai Ouroussoff in the New York Times highly praises the recent renovation of the Art And Architecture Building at Yale University, Paul Rudolph's signature work. The article is less impressed with the recently completed addition to the building. The article notes that the A & A will be rededicated as Paul Rudolph Hall in November. Thanks to Christopher Larkosh of the UMass Dartmouth Faculty for the alert.




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On the Bond Centre (now Lippo Centre), Hong Kong

“Hong Kong is an entirely different project. It is interesting in that it's being built on somebody else's foundations, and, therefore, the planning of Hong Kong is determined by foundations already poured in place. The owners changed because of the relationship with Red China and everybody got scared. They are totally commercial office buildings, unlike Jakarta, and therefore the ground rules are very different. Also there are multiplicities of owners, unlike Dharmala, which is a corporate headquarters. It is like home to them, and, therefore, they take great interest in it. It's not that they don't take an interest in the Hong Kong projects. It's just that the ground rules are very, very different, about what you can and cannot do. The Hong Kong project is two towers and I wanted to connect them with interlacing bridges. I don't know whether you've ever seen any of those sketches or not. They wouldn't let me do that. The reason for that was the prime developer/owner said that he made a substantial part of his fortune in textiles in Indonesia as a matter of fact. He said all of his factories had interconnecting bridges that take material and people from one part to the other. He didn't want these office buildings to look like that. I was really disappointed. I couldn't get around that argument though I did try.”
Interview with Robert Bruegmann, 1986

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Yale to Highlight Paul Rudolph with Exhibition, Colloquium


In conjunction with the renaming of the Art and Architecture Building to Rudolph Hall, the Yale School of Architecture is sponsoring an exhibit and two lectures on Paul Rudolph. The exhibit "Model City: Buildings and Projects by Paul Rudolph for New Haven and Yale" will open November 3, 2008 and continue until February 6, 2009. Peter Eisenman will deliver a lecture "Rudolph Then and Now" on November 6, 2008 and Timothy Rohan will deliver a lecture "The Enigmatic Architecture of Paul Rudolph" on Novemer 7, 2008. Both lectures will be given at 6:30pm. All of the events will be held at Rudolph Hall.


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On Regionalism in Architecture

“We must search for the innate possibilities of a given site or climate and the regional characteristics of vernacular building. Every city has its own unique scale, proportions and materials. Traditional methods of building quite often are still the most economical; one doesn’t always have to put up a curtain wall.
Mendelsohn [Erich, 1887-1953] in his hospital [Maimonides Hospital, 1946-1950] in San Francisco used a series of balconies that echo one of the city’s common denominators, i.e., the bay window. The shutter in New Orleans tends to have been used in the early French architecture, the Greek revival architecture and now in modern architecture. If one finds in a city that kind of common denominator, one should try to use it to make the new more sympathetic with the old; but such elements must be used in one’s own way.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "The Form of the City." Canadian Architect 4 (March 1959): 49-67.

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New Book Highlights Preservation of Modern Architecture


"Preservation of Modern Architecture" by Theodore Prudon is a timely and substantial new book on an increasingly urgent subject. Not only have a number of projects by Paul Rudolph fallen victim to the wrecking ball but many other modernist masterpieces are also threatened. This book is an excellent introductory study of the issues. It is divided into two parts. The first chapters discuss the philosophical and practical issues of historic presevation of modern buildings. The second part presents case studies of the restoration and conservation of individual projects. There are no Paul Rudolph projects discussed in the case studies but he is referred to a number of times throughout the text.


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Rudolph Designed Residence Comes to Light in Fort Myers, FL


Another residence by Paul Rudolph that had previously flown under the radar of scholars has come to light in Fort Myers, Florida. The Mahony Residence, designed in the early 1950s while the the architect was still in partnership with Ralph Twitchell has been highlighted in an article published by the Fort Myers News-Press. See article and pictures by clicking below. Thanks to the Paul Rudolph Foundation for the alert.




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Rudolph Represented in New Exhibit at MOMA


Thu, 06/26/2008 - 14:12
"Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling"
Museum of Modern Art.
July 20–October 20, 2008
This exhibition "is both a survey of the past, present and future of the prefabricated home and a building project on the Museum's vacant west lot. Not since the mid-century "House in the Garden" series has MoMA built occupiable model buildings to demonstrate contemporary issues to the public. The fives homes erected on the vacant west lot are designed by Kieran Timberlake Associates (Philadelphia); Jeremy Edmiston and Douglas Gauthier (New York); Horden Cherry Lee Architects / Haack + Höpfner Architects (London/Munich); Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Architecture and Planning / Associate Professor Lawrence Sass (Cambridge); and Oskar Leo Kaufmann (Dornbirn, Austria)."
The Oriental Masonic Gardens project in New Haven, CT by Paul Rudolph is included in the exhibit.


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Recent Book on Concrete Buildings in Toronto Presents Useful Case Study


Concrete Toronto: A guidebook to concrete architecture from the fifties to the seventies. Toronto: Coach House books, 2007.


This books presents to students and scholars a comprehensive case study of Modern architecture in the Brutalist style as practiced in Toronto. Paul Rudolph is only mentioned briefly. However, the numerous buildings dscussed and illustrated in this book mirror the work of Rudolph as well as the other Modernist masters.

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On the Student Architect


“Architectural educations’ first concern is to perpetuate a climate where the student is acutely and perceptively and incessantly aware of the creative process. We must understand that after all the building committees, the conflicting interests, the budget considerations and the limitations of his fellow man have been taken into consideration that his responsibility has just begun. He must understand that in the exhilarating, awesome moment when he takes pencil in hand, and holds it poised above a white sheet of paper, that he has suspended there all that has gone before and all that will ever be. The creative act is all that matters.”
Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "The Architectural Education in U.S.A." Zodiac 8 (1961): 162-165.



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On Dharmala Sakti Building, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1982-1988

“I always see the site. Of course I went there. I did an interesting thing, at their suggestion, as a matter of fact. I told them that I wanted to get as clear an idea of vernacular architecture in that part of the world as possible. They took me to some villages nearby, but they also took me to a tourist park that had built about twelve structures from the Indonesian islands. They are very distinctive architectural types. New Guinea is very different, of course, from Sumatra, and very different from Bali, and so on. They're all a little bit corny and you could tell what was supposed to be there and what wasn't. It wasn't perfect. I knew these things from photographs because I'd also done a little research. I had known certainly some of them but not all of them. To see them, even in their degenerated forms in a tourist village, was a fascinating thing. You can always see certain things in reality. That was very instructive for me. You could see the intent; let me put it that way. Quite often the detail wasn't as it should be. Sometimes they would fireproof things when they shouldn't. It's a little bit like Williamsburg; things get changed. It was very instructive to do that. After all, I could have taken six months and gone to two thousand islands or something but I didn't have the time.”
Interview with Robert Bruegmann, 1986

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Advocates for the Preservation of Riverview High School in Sarasota not Giving Up


Although the Sarasota County School Board has narrowly voted against plans to rehabilitate Riverview High School designed by Paul Rudolph, advocates and preservationists have not withdrwan from the battle.
"I just want to underscore that there is much hope still for the building, and the vote was not whether to raze the building, but it was whether to move forward with adopting a site plan and the plans for the Riverview Music Quadrangle." Lenore Suttle, Sarasota Architectural Foundation.

See more on the efforts to save the building at the references below.




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Definition of Urbanism


In many of his public comments on architecture, Paul Rudolph referred to “urbanism” as one of the guiding principles in his work. In this 1992 article published in the Italian journal, Arca he articulates that explanation.

“Urban design is remodeling, adding, subtracting, reworking, relating and reforming three-dimensional spaces for human activities, including all pedestrian and vehicular systems. Urban design deals with the old and the new, the expanded and the contracted, the hum-drum and the extraordinary. It brings people together. It separates people. It commemorates its history. It never lies, but portrays life three-dimensionally, as it really is. At its best, it creates related and usable exterior spaces, provides means of “getting there” and a “there” once you are “there”. It is the mother art of civilization, for it allows and, indeed, demands ideas, thinking, reactions to opportunities of the moment, executed in the spirit of its time, but demands respect for its earlier efforts. The new depends on the old and is responsible for the future. If the old is ignored, misunderstood, the future will mock the seemingly new and reveal for all to plainly see the false thinking expressed. All the other arts are handmaidens to urban design.”

Rudolph, Paul Marvin, 1918-1997. "Architecture and Society." Arca No. 62 (July/August 1992): 3-5.

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Sarasota School Board Votes to Raze Paul Rudolph's Riverview High School


The Sarasota County School Board voted 3-2 to demolish this Paul Rudolph building. See complete story below.


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More on Riverview High School: Renderings by Diane Lewis


Check out the drawings for the "new" Riverview High School by the design firm led by Diane Lewis in an attempt to save the Paul Rudolph building in Sarasota Florida.


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Update on Riverview High School. School Board to Review Plans


On June 17 the Sarasota County, FL School Board will review plans to save Riverview High School by Paul Rudolph. See Bill Hutchison's detailed artilce with accompanying images from the Sarasota Herald-Tribune from June 8, 2008.


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Kerr Residence in Melbourne Beach, Florida under restoration


The Kerr Residence, 1950 in Melbourne Beach, Florida is undergoing a restoration by the firm Spacecoast Architects, P.A. of Indialantic, FL. Lawrence Maxwell, President of the firm and Sharon Migala, Project Manager have been very gracious in sending images of the project to the web site. Original plans by Paul Rudolph and Ralph Twitchel will soon be available here as well as before and after images of the home. I thank them for sending this important information to us.


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Restoration of the Art & Architecture Building by Gwathmey Siegel & Associates


Check out the web site for Gwathmey Siegel & Associates for a look at a few images of their work in renovating the Art & Architecture Building at Yale University by Paul Rudolph. Charles Gwathmey once worked as an assistant with the architect.


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Interview with Chris Mottalini Reveals Obscure Rudolph Residential Projects


Check out this interview with Chris Mottalini on his interest in photographing the houses of Paul Rudolph. This article contains photographs of two very obscure residential projects of the architect; one in Larchmont, NY and the other in Newtown, PA. This is the first reference to the Fullham Residence, 1959, Newtown, PA that I have seen. Chris has been very generous in offering his photographs to be posted on this web site.


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On Civic Architecture


“And so we come to civic architecture, the grand omission for half a century. In its most simple terms civic architecture means assigning a proper role to each building so it works in concert with its neighbors, thereby creating a comprehensible whole. This is the opposite of the Madison Avenue view, which thinks of each building as a billboard for its owner. It means that there must be the focal building, the foreground and supporting buildings, the building that acts as a base for the important building, the building that acts as a pivot, the gateway building, the transitional building, etc. Architects have abdicated from the traditional role they played in large-scale, three-dimensional design. We mistakenly thought that the planners were civic designers. They are not now, and never will be.”

Panel discussion with William H. Jordy, Philip Johnson, Peter Blake and Ulrich Franzen, 1962

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Art and Architecture Building at Yale under renovation

An recent article published on May 21 in the New Haven Register by Michael Foley outlined the progress on the renovation of Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building. "...360 construction workers work day and night on a $20 million renovation that will recapture past architectural glory." The work is scheduled to be completed in the fall when the building will be dedicated as "Paul Rudolph Hall." You can read the entire article online at the New Haven Register web site.

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On the Oriental Masonic Gardens, New Haven, CT

"In New Haven, in the 60s, I designed some housing using trailers. I had the acquiescence of Mayor Lee, a remarkable mayor indeed. The whole notion of making a project for about 150 people using trailers was difficult to persuade anybody to do. I suppose it was a mistake; it was eventually demolished. People hated it. First of all it leaked, which is a very good reason to hate something, but I think it was much more complicated than that. Psychologically, the good folk who inhabited these dwellings thought that they were beneath them. In other words, the deviation of the dwelling was not something to their liking. I thought, and I suppose the mayor thought, that trailers were perfectly good enough for them. But I should say, in defense of what we built, that it was a pocket court plan and that it provided a separate outside space for each family. There were two stories, with a core at the center. I am very tenacious about certain things, and in the long run it seems to me that with the correcting of mistakes one can make something much more successful.”
Remarks included in the posthumous article “Rethinking Designs in the 60s,” Perspecta, 1998.

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New Book Features Rudolph's Bass Residence

The newly published book, "Great Houses of Texas" by Lisa Germany features a beautifully illustrated 10 page chapter on the Bass Residence in Fort Worth, TX, considered by many to be Paul Rudolph's greatest residential project. The chapter features 10 color interior and exterior photographs as well as a concise but detailed history of the house.

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What is scale?

“The usual definition of scale is the relationship of the human dimension to the environment. We talk about a building being “in scale” or “out of scale,” which is really nonsense. Most buildings that really count have multiple scales. Buildings need to be understandable in their varying dimensions – sight, sound, smell, relationship to their environment, their spot on the globe, materials, climate, the mode of approaching, modes of movement (i.e., walking, automobile, train, subway, bus, plane), etc. All of this is modified by our cultural memory and the twentieth-century contributions to transportation. The quickly moving vehicle has transformed the possibilities of scale as an architectural tool to help remind us of our humanity. Our modes of transportation will change in unpredictable ways, but the population explosion ensures that “getting there” will be with us for some time, and this changes our understanding of the environment.”
Interview with Peter Blake included in “Paul Rudolph: The Late Work.” 2003.

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On his firing from SMTI / UMass Dartmouth in 1966

“Yes, I was fired. But in a sense, my influence and efforts did not change that drastically -- not at first anyway -- because the other architects -- and I have to emphasize that there were many architects involved -- understood that there was a pervading idea, series of ideas, welding the campus into one, and that it needed to be an ongoing effort, so the other architects actually came to my rescue, otherwise it would not have worked.
The then Governor of Massachusetts [John Volpe] felt very strongly that I should resign, so I had no alternative but to do so. This was essentially over questions of cost, but his staff, as I understand it, reported that our buildings were little, if any, more expensive than others the state of Massachusetts was erecting. But the good governor, as I understand it, retorted that it didn't matter really what they cost, they looked expensive, which I thought was a very nice compliment. In any event, too much was at stake, from my viewpoint anyway, and too much had already been planned or designed or considered. It is one thing to put on paper initial ideas, and it is another thing to see that those ideas are developed properly through the labyrinth of integrating the work of many different kinds of engineering, disciplines, modifications of program, considerations of costs, learning from earlier work on a large project -- both negative and positive --and correcting or modifying that experience.”
Interview with Lasse Antonsen, 1996

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Mottalini Photographs Added to Web Site


Photographer Chris Mottalini, currently exhibiting photographs documenting the demise of a number of Paul Rudolph residences at the Museum of Contemporary Photography in Chicago, has graciously given permission to post selected items from the collection to this web site. Poignant last images of the Twitchell Residence in Sarasota, FL and the Micheels Residence in Westport, CT are now included here.



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On the Tuskegee Chapel

“When working on the Tuskegee Chapel, I suggested a continuous slot of glass around the perimeter just below the roof, so the natural light enters the sanctuary diagonally. The roof is hyperbolic paraboloid in form for acoustic reasons, and the space rises diagonally and escapes through glass. The directions of the movement of space are in opposite but balanced directions, which is largely responsible for the dynamic quality of the space. In addition, there is a varying velocity of the movement of space. The floor is almost level, but the ceiling height above the floor constantly changes, so that the space moves rapidly where the ceiling is high but more slowly where the ceiling is low. All of this must be imagined, so that there is a balance between opposite movements of space and light.”
Interview with Peter Blake included in “Paul Rudolph: The Late Work.” 2003.

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"Death Knell" of Rudolph Houses included in exhibition


Photographs by Chris Mottalini document the demise of the houses of Paul Rudolph in the exhibition "Building Pictures" currently running at the Museum of Contemporary Photography, Chicago from April 4 to May 31, 2008.




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Podcasts on Saving Riverview High School


Thanks to Harold Bubil, Real Estate Editor of the Sarasota Herald-Tribune, for sending the link to his very informative podcasts relative to the effort to save from demolition Paul Rudolph's Riverview High School in Sarasota, FL.


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Drawings of the Tuskegee Institute Chapel Acquired


Through the continued generosity of the Library of Architecture, Design and Construction and the efforts of Mr. Boyd Childress at Auburn University, the web site has acquired and posted digital scans of 11 individual drawings of the Chapel at the Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee AL. This building is often cited as one of Paul Rudolph's most important works.


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On skyscrapers from an interview primarily about the City Center Towers in Fort Worth, TX.


“I have been influenced by the fact that people perceive the first six stories (or 120 feet) of a high-rise building in a very different way from the rest of it. I came to that 120 feet because it has been shown (and I tested this myself) that most people can’t recognize other people from more than 120 feet. So what happens higher than this matters only as seen from a great distance. Therefore, you can argue that above 120 feet, the high-rise tower can be scale less, but below this level, the building must achieve a human scale.”

Interview with Mildred F. Schmertz, 1985

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Riverview High School decision delayed


The school board in Sarasota County has delayed the decision on the fate of Riverview High School for three months. The Revive Rudolph's Riverview Committee of the Sarasota Architectural Foundation has worked hard to save the Rudolph-designed building developing a new plan named the Riverview Music Quadrangle. This gives the organizers of the RMQ time to refine their plan.

Sarasota Herald-Trbune, March 6, 2008

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On color in architecture


“Well, I can't say that I'm interested in a particular palette. For me, color is one of the most complex things in the world because it's always so different in different lights, different quantities at different times of the day, and when juxtaposed against other colors the actuality and the appearance are two different things. Maybe I've been very tentative about color because I tend to think that monochromatic schemes are the best. It has also has to do with the fact that people change things. Maybe if you're tentative about the coloring then that's an invitation for them to change, I don't know. One of the aspects of color that fascinates me is the reflected light from the color. I have worked with concrete, at least earlier, a great deal and I would often make a very warm-toned carpeting. The reflected light changed the concrete and bathed it in a warm light. I find much architecture very offensive in terms of its color, as a matter of fact.”

Interview with Robert Bruegmann, 1986

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Drawings of Earl W. Brydges Library in Niagara Falls, NY Added


Two presentation drawings of the Earl W. Brydges Library in Niagara Falls, NY have been added to the web site. The large drawings, prints on mylar, were given to the Claire T. Carney Library by William Grindereng, a long time associate of Paul Rudolph in New Haven and Boston. One of the drawings is a very unusual, almost disorienting, aerial perspective of the project. Thanks to Bill Grindereng for the donation as well as Boston Photo Imaging for digitizing the items and Justin Maucione of the Claire T. Carney Library for preparing the images for the web site.



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Rudolph's Undergraduate Thesis is Now Available


Rudolph's undergraduate thesis, "Glass in Architecture and Decoration" which he completed at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute (now Auburn University) in 1940 is now available as full-text document on this web site. Look under the title entry or click below.


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Riverview High School has new hope

"Rudolph building finally has real hope for rescue.
A year and a half ago, we would have laid better than even odds that the original Paul Rudolph structure at Riverview High School ultimately would face the wrecking ball. Now this community has before it a clear vision for the building's rescue and resurrection.
Fortunately both the conservationists fighting to save this fine example of the Sarasota School of Architecture and the Sarasota County School Board members were able to push beyond their almost childlike petulance in debating its future and work toward common ground. They managed to pave the way for what we find is a magnificent means of saving a piece of history while making Sarasota's cultural star shine even more brightly.
The intervention of the National Trust for Historic Preservation in holding a "charrette" last March to ponder just how the Rudolph building could be saved was invaluable in this process. As a result, the Sarasota Architectural Foundation was able to fund and hold a competition seeking a viable future for the structure. That competition produced a proposal for a Music Quadrangle that would build upon Riverview's much-deserved reputation as a Music Demonstration School in this state.
The SAF will have until March 15 to prove that the Music Quadrangle is more than just a designer's dream, but given architect Diane Lewis' passion for her proposal, we truly believe it can become a reality.
Speak to Lewis for just a few minutes and you will know not only that she is absolutely committed to saving the Rudolph building and restoring it to its former luster but that she wants to use her many resources to expand on just the type of activity that the Itzhak Perlman Music Program has become for Sarasota. She wants to see other world-class musicians as artists in residence working with young people on the Riverview campus, and musical programs open to the public to showcase internationally known stars and the next generation who will be following in their footsteps.
When the school board met with Lewis and SAF representatives on Dec. 11, we heard a lot of concerns raised about the work that will have to be done - with the new school already under way - to make the Music Quadrangle fit on the redeveloped campus. Yet, we also heard Diane Lewis say those obstacles are in no way insurmountable.
Of course, the final act in this process belongs to the school board. Come March, its five members will decide once and for all whether Paul Rudolph's original vision for Riverview High will be burnished in a new use or left only as a memory in the pages of architectural students' textbooks. If Diane Lewis and the SAF fulfill their part of the bargain, as we believe they will, then it should be very easy for the school board to give them their blessings to proceed."
Editorial in the weekly newspaper, The Pelican Press, Sarasota, FL February 14, 2008

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Sarasota Area Modern Architecture Driving Tour


Check out this url to acquire a driving tour of the Sarasota School of Modern Architecture. Most of Paul Rudolph's projects in the area are included.


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Sir Norman Foster on Paul Rudolph


"Many of these drawings, especially the perspective sections, would encapsulate in a single image the range of Rudolph’s concerns as an architect. There was his quest to define and model space with light and planar surfaces – his interest in climate and the relationship between structure and services – his explorations into modularity and the potential of prefabrication – a later interest in high-density urban megastructures.

These concerns have been shared by many architects in the past and that will continue, but Rudolph developed a very personal language out of such issues as well as the diversity of building materials that he also explored during his career. I remember that Rudolph made constant reference to the work of other architects to illustrate an issue of form or a point of theory. But his own work was never obviously derivative, however strong his points of reference or historical awareness."
Gray, Susan. Architects on Architects. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001

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On the Potential of Pre-Cast Concrete

"If one were to make a prognostication, again, one would say that the aesthetics of pre-cast reinforced concrete will lead us to an architecture which depends on the play of light and shadow, as opposed to the architecture which depends basically, for its aesthetic values, on reflections which come from a curtain wall. This does not mean to say that the curtain wall is no longer meaningful as a dress for the steel cage. It does have meaning. But it’s just that it’s not the only way to do it. One of the things that we all long for is much more plasticity or depth in the treatment of the exterior of our buildings. This, I feel, will come to a large degree through the manipulation of reinforced pre-cast concrete."
Interview with John Peter, 1959

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Rudolph on his encounters with Frank Lloyd Wright

“I was a visiting critic at Princeton and for reasons that I don't remember, maybe I never knew, he was at Princeton and was brought into the drafting room where I was. We were introduced and he said, "And what are you doing here?" I said, "Well, I'm trying to teach a bit." He said, "Only prostitutes teach." I think that was the extent of that conversation. Another time he was at Philip Johnson's house, uninvited, unexpected, one Sunday morning. I happened to be a guest there. He and Philip put on a great show for us. He had never seen the Glass House and he told Philip he had gone all the way. He was very adamant about things he liked and didn't like. The Nadelman sculptures, which are papier maché, he didn't like. He took his cane and gave them a whack. Since it was only papier maché everybody present was concerned what was going to happen. He didn't like the exposed bulbs in the bathroom. Then out of the woods had appeared half a dozen people who were with him. Both he and Philip put on a great show because they now had enough of an audience to make it worthwhile, you understand. We went to the guesthouse and everybody was invited to take off their shoes, except the great man, because of the white rug. Mr. Wright was allowed to sit on the bed, which nobody else was allowed to do because of the bedspread. I think Wright had never had a rheostat in his hand before—Philip gave it to him, for the artificial light. The sun was shining very brightly—it was noon on a bright, as I remember it, spring day—and the curtains were all pulled closed and Wright was like a child with the rheostat—I genuinely don't think he'd ever had a rheostat in his hand—making light levels go up and down. Then he lectured everybody about I don't know what. At one point he told Philip that he thought people with street clothes should never be allowed in that room, he obviously liked the room. I think he liked the whole thing, although he couldn't quite say that. Wright said that nobody should wear street clothes in such a room. Either there should be special robes that you were given to wear in the room or everybody should be in the nude; there was nothing in between. Out of nowhere appeared an Indian red car. He told us that that was his color, as if nobody knew that. His parting words and I guess the last time I ever saw him, were that he was going to the opening of the Coliseum here in New York and that he would, of course, attract more attention than the building did. I'm sure that was true. I hope it was true anyway. That was it. I didn't know him well.”
Interview with Robert Bruegmann, 1986

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Upgrade to the Paul Rudolph & His Architecture web site

The web site was upgraded today. One of the main improvements to the site is that now the images are available in a gallery display when you click on the name of the project. This should make the selection useful images much easier.

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The Art & Architecture of Paul Rudolph via Yahoo's Flickr


This is the title of a user group of photos of Paul Rudolph buildings from Yahoo's Flickr photosharing web site. There are over 2,300 images of projects from the familiar to the very obscure. A great resource for images.


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75 Years of Architecture at MoMA

75 Years of Architecture at MoMA
The Philip Johnson Architecture and Design Galleries, The Museum of Modern Art
November 16, 2007–March 10, 2008
MoMA’s Department of Architecture, founded in 1932, was the world’s first curatorial department dedicated to architecture. This installation of some 50 drawings and models from the collection celebrates the 75th anniversary of the department and demonstrates the development of its collecting practice, with several recent acquisitions on view for the first time. Among the drawings is an exterior perspective of Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. While early acquisitions were largely models and photographs of built works, a focus on architectural drawing has steadily increased since the 1950s. The exhibition examines themes in the history of modern architecture—organicism and expressionism, urbanism, visionary architecture, and the art of drawing—which have received greater attention since MoMA’s famous inaugural architecture exhibition, Modern Architecture: An International Exhibition (1932), which defined the international style for several generations. Organized by Barry Bergdoll, The Philip Johnson Chief Curator of Architecture and Design, and Alexandra Quantrill, Curatorial Assistant, Department of Architecture and Design, The Museum of Modern Art.

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What is an architect?


John Peter:

What is an architect?

Paul Rudolph:

An architect is a man concerned with building meaningfully. As opposed to someone who is interested in building efficiently, or sometimes even beautifully, or as opposed to the whole engineering aspects of building, as opposed to adorning buildings, as opposed to all the ramifications that consultants get into. We often apologize for being interested in meaningful buildings, and tend to talk the language of the master builder, or the engineer, or the efficiency expert, or 25 other experts. But we do our profession an injustice in that way.

Interview with John Peter, 1959

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UMass Dartmouth 1960-2006: Trials and Triumph


This new, profusely illustrated book on the history of the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth by Frederick Gifun features the architecture of the campus and its original designer, Paul Rudolph. It contains a wealth of images including reproductions of drawings as well as historical and contemporary photographs of the campus. For additional information, see the web site:


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