The importance of transportation in world development is multidimensional. For example, one of the basic functions of transportation is to link residence with employment and producers of goods with their users. From a wider viewpoint, transportation facilities provide the options for work, shopping, and recreation, and give access to health, education, and other amenities.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers defines transportation engineering as "the application of technological and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of facilities for ant mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods." traffic engineering, a branch of transportation engineering, is described as "that phase of transportation engineering which deals with planning, geometric design, and traffic operations of roads, streets, and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation.
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are the transportation systems which have advanced technologies that make them "intelligent." The implementation of advanced technologies results in safer and more efficient highways, provides earlier traveler information concerning roadway conditions and assists with the management of roadway incidents. ITS includes a whole range of advanced computer hardware and software technologies. Examples of ITS include changable message signs, CMS, electronic toll collection, ETC, traffic management centers, TMC, incident detection algorithms, IDA, and many other "smart" systems now becoming standard resources in the design, construction, operation and management of our roadway systems.